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Dasavatara: Ten Avatars of Vishnu

The ten most famous descents of Vishnu are collectively known as the“Dasavatara” (“dasa” in Sanskrit means ten). This list is included in the Garuda Purana (1.86.10″11) and denotes those avatars most prominent in terms of their influence on human society.
The first four are said to have appeared in the Satya Yuga (the first of the four Yugas or ages in the time cycle described within Hinduism). The next three avatars appeared in the Treta Yuga, the eighth descent in the Dwapara Yuga and the ninth in the Kali Yuga. The tenth is predicted to appear at the end of the Kali Yuga in some 427,000 years time
* Matsya, the fish, appeared in the Satya Yuga.
* Kurma, the tortoise, appeared in the Satya Yuga.
* Varaha, the boar, appeared in the Satya Yuga.
* Narasimha, the half-man/half-lion appeared in the Satya Yuga.
* Vamana, the dwarf, appeared in the Treta Yuga.
* Parashurama, Rama with the axe, appeared in the Treta Yuga.
* Rama, Ramachandra, the prince and king of Ayodhya, appeared in the Treta Yuga.
* Krishna (meaning “dark coloured” or “all attractive”) appeared in the Dwapara Yuga along with his brother Balarama. According to the Bhagavata Purana Balarama is said to have appeared in the Dwapara Yuga (along with Krishna ) as a descent of Ananta Shesha. He is also counted as an avatar of Vishnu by the majority of Vaishnava movements and is included as the ninth Dasavatara in some versions of the list which contain no reference to Buddha.
* Gautama Buddha (meaning “the enlightened one”) appeared in the Kali Yuga (specifically as Siddhartha Gautama).
* Kalki (“Eternity”, or “time”, or “The Destroyer of foulness”), who is expected to appear at the end of Kali Yuga, the time period in which we currently exist, which will end in the year 428899 CE.

The Story of MATSYA Avatar

In MATSYA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a fish in this world. In the earliest yuga (era) of Sata-yuga, a king named Manu was performing severe penance for thousands of years. One day as he was performing ablutions with river water, a small fish came into his hands and just as he was about to throw the fish back into the river, the fish requested the king to save its life. Heeding its request, the king put the fish into a jar of water but the fish started growing and the jar was not big enough for it. Then the king threw it into the river, but it soon it outgrew the river and the king then threw it into Ganges and then into the ocean. The king realized that it was Lord Vishnu himself and then the lord made an appearance and made a special request to the king. It predicted that the world would come to an end by a huge flood in seven days and requested the king to build a huge boat and take the seven sages(hermits), seeds of all plants, one animal of each type and told him that he would appear as a fish to propel the boat to Mt Himavan for surviving the flood to the next yuga(eon). True to his word, after seven days the Lord appeared and the king tied the boat to the fish by using the royal serpent Vasuki and the fish took all of them to Mt Himavan and kept them there till the flood was over and in the new era, the king started procreation for the new era.

The Story of KURMA AvatarIn KURMA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a turtle. It is an interesting story involving both the gods (devtas) and asuras (demons). In the ongoing saga of battle between the gods and asuras, on one occasion the gods suddenly lost all their strength due to a curse by the short-tempered sage Durvasa. The sage had once presented a garland of flowers to Indra, king of gods, who carelessly gave it away to his elephant which trampled it.
The Devtas approached Vishnu for help. Vishnu then asked them to churn the ocean of milk after adding medicines into the ocean. Mt Mandara could be used a the churning stick he said. He requested them to ask them help of Asuras in lifting the mountain in exchange for offer of the share of nectar of immortality that would ensue from the churning. Both the devatas and the asuras churned the ocean using the serpent Vasuki as the rope. At the start, playing a Machiavellian trick, Indra, king of the gods asked the asuras for the head end of vasuki. But asuras suspecting foul play, took the head end, only to be deceived as the poison from Vasuki was slowly weakening them. But as churning was proceeding the mountain was sinking and then Lord Vishnu took the form of the turtle KURMA and kept the mountain afloat. As soon as the bowl of amrita, the nectar of immortality was out, the asuras grabbed it. Then Lord Vishnu took the form of an apsara, a beautiful maiden, and seduced the asuras into letting her distribute the nectar and also to abide by her order of distribution. As soon as the devatas were served the maiden disappeared thus totally deceiving the asuras and making them totally weak.

Dash Avtaaram Vishnu

The Story of VARAHA Avatar

In VARAHA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a boar in this world. A demon Hiranyaksha, had prayed for Lord Brahma and got awarded a boon that no beast nor man nor god could kill him. But somehow from the list of beasts the name of boar was missing. This proved to be his lacunae. He then started a campaign of plunder across the worlds. He pushed the world to the Pataal loka, or the under of the sea. He stole the Vedas, the holy scriptures from the Lord Brahma, while he was asleep and performed huge atrocities. To retrieve the Vedas and to save the world the Lord Vishnu assumed the role of a boar and brought out the earth from the under of the ocean, using its two tusks. It then killed Hiranyaksha and retrieved the Vedas from the asura and brought it back to the safe custody of the Lord Brahma.

The Story of NARASIMHA Avatar

In NARASIMHA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a semi-man, semi-lion in this world. The king of demons (asuras), Hiranyakasyapa, wanted to become immortal and wanted to remain young forever. To this end, he meditated for Lord Brahma and because of his severe penance, the gods were frightened and asked Brahma to pacify the king. Brahma was impressed by his austerity and granted him a wish. HiranyaKasyapa wished that he be neither killed by a man or beast, nor in daylight or at night and neither inside or outside a building. Having obtained the wish he considered himself the supreme God and frobade all worship of gods by anyone.
But his son Prahlada, was an ardent devotee of Vishnu. This enraged Hiranyakasyapa very much. He ordered numerous ways to kill Prahlada including asking his sister Holika to sit with Prahlada in the fire. But everytime Prahlada escaped unhurt. Enraged, once he asked Prahlad to show him the Lord Vishnu. Prahlad said, “He is everywhere”. Further enraged, Hiranyakasyapa knocked down a pillar, and asked if Lord was present there. Lord Vishnu then emerged as a half lion, half man from the pillar which was neither inside the house nor outside, and the time was evening, neither night nor day. He then killed Hiranyakasyapa thus saving the life of his devotee Prahlada.

The Story of VAMANA Avatar

In VAMANA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a dwarf priest in this world. Bali , the grandson of Prahlada was a very valorous and mighty asura. By his penance and might, he conquered the whole world. Indra and other gods fearing that he and asuras would conquer all the three worlds, went to Lord Vishnu for help. Lord Vishnu was then born as a dwarf Vamana in the household of a brahmana (priest). He went to Bali on growing up and asked for alms. Bali was delighted to offer him anything he requested even though his priest warned him that it was Lord Vishnu.
Vamana then requested for the amount of land that could come under his three feet. Bali gracefully agreed. Lord Vishnu then grew in size and covered the earth and heaven in two stride. And due to lack of space, he put his third leg on Bali himself and crushed Bali to the nether or the Patala loka(underground world), thus helping the Gods out.

The Story of PARASHURAMA Avatar

In PARASHURAMA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a brahmana (priest) in this world. He was brought in this world to avenge all kshatriyas who had become arrogant and were suppressing the brahmans in the world. He was born to Jamadagni and Renuka, and belonged to the Brighu clan. Parashurama was always carrying an axe presented to him by Lord Shiva of whom he was an ardent devotee. Kartavirya a powerful king, once went to Jamadagni’s home when he was out, and after a meal, stole the Kamadhenu cow, which was supposed to give endless quantity of milk.
Jamadagni was enraged and he went and killed the king and brought Kamadhenu back. On hearing this, the son of the king came back and killed Jamadagni.Parashurama was enraged at this and went and avenged the death of his father by killing all kshatriyas in 21 battles.

The Story of RAMA Avatar

In RAMA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as RAMA, the central character in the epic Ramayan. In the epic, the character RAMA is expected to show the world the characteristics of an ideal person, including ideal son, ideal husband, ideal king and an ideal person. RAMA was incarnated upon this planet to get rid of the asura with ten heads, Ravana, who had been granted a boon by Brahma of immunity from gods, and other celestial beings. Ravana was too vainglorious to be thinking of being vanquished by a man. Hence RAMA was born and Lakshmi, wife of Lord Vishnu was born as Sita, his wife to be in this life. The story of Ramayan, is an exciting nail-biting story of the war raged by Rama against various evil elements of the world and in the end against Ravana.Ramayan epitomises the ideal behaviour of man, with special focus on man-wife relationship, son-father relationship and the rules for ideal governance by a king.

The Story of KRISHNA Avatar

In KRISHNA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as KRISHNA , the central character in the epic MAHABHARATA. In the biggest epic of Indian mythology a myriad of topics are covered, including war, love, brotherhood, politics etc. It is essentially the story of two warring groups of cousin brothers, the PANDAVAs and the KAURAVAs. As a part of the Mahabahrata, during the war KRISHNA , gives a long discourse to his disciple ARJUNA, collectively termed as Bhagvad-Gita.Krishna , during his child-hood was responsible for the killing of Kamsa. Krishna is also considered to be an ultimate playboy who was responsible for charming all gopikaas around him.
Unlike Ramayan, Mahabharata deals with more down to earth issues like politics, human nature, human weaknesses, and does not attempt to idealise the characters as in Ramayan.

The Story of BUDDHA Avatar

In BUDDHA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as BUDDHA, the ascetic prince who renounced the throne to lead the world on the path of peace. He is the founder of the BUDDHIST religion prominent across the world. In certain sects of Hinduism, he is considered to be a divine incarnation of Lord Vishnu. He was born the crown prince of the Kapilavastu to Suddhodana and Maya. He was named Siddhartha, meaning “All thing fulfilled” by the king. But his mother died soon after his birth but Prajapati, the sister of Maya, brought Siddhartha up. Buddha was saddened by death of living creatures, since his childhood days and used to question: “Alas! Do all living creatures kill each other?” He wasn’t happy with any answers that were provided to him and he decided to find out the meaning and the absolute truth and he left his wife and child to a hermit’s life in the forest and one day, became the enlightened one. His preaching spawned off the religion of Buddhism now popular across the whole world.

The Story of KALKI Avatar

In KALKI Avatar, Lord Vishnu will incarnate himself as KALKI, the machine-man, who will come riding his white horse and with his blazing sword in his hands. This is supposed to be a future avatar of Lord Vishnu. At the end of Kali Yuga (present eon) He will punish all evil doers in this world, destroy this world and recreate a golden age again.
KALKI is the last of the avatars of Lord Vishnu

Lord Vishnu

Lord Vishnu is the all-pervasive Lord who expands into everything. He is the maintainer of the universe and the complete cosmic creation. He is called Vishnu because He overcomes all. He represents sattva-guna, or the mode of goodness by which everything is sustained. He is also called Narayana, which means the shelter, resting place or ultimate goal of all living entities. It also means the one whose abode is the causal waters ( Karana Ocean ), and one who lives in the hearts of all living beings. It is this sattva nature which gives the living beings the tendency to grow toward a higher truth, the light, a more cohesive and intense reality. In this sense, Lord Vishnu is also called Hari, or one who removes the darkness of illusion. This illusion ultimately means the idea that the living beings live separate from, or without connection to, the Lord.
Lord Vishnu is often portrayed resting on the huge serpent of Sesha. We see that the thousand heads of Sesha are all turned inward, representing a tranquil mind, and looking toward the Absolute Truth of Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu is also seen in the yogic sleep called yoga-nidra. The yoga-nidra (yoga or the root yuj meaning to connect or join) is a cosmic sleep wherein the Lord is focused on the Infinite Reality of His own identity.
Lord Vishnu is also seen standing on the whirl of a lotus flower with four hands, which represent the four directions and indicates His absolute power in the four corners of the universe. Each hand holds an item, such as a disc, lotus, conch, and mace. Of the four items, the conch represents the five universal elements. When the conch is blown, it is said to produce a sound related to the original vibration of universal creation. The Lord also blows His conch in calling everyone to turn to the higher reality rather than remaining in the darkness of material existence. This calling is the inner voice which nudges all beings of conscience to seek the Absolute Truth. If man does not heed the call, then the Lord may still use His conch to cut asunder the ego and material attachments of those who do not turn toward the spiritual path.
The disc or chakra signifies the universal mind or awareness. It rids all darkness wherever it appears, and thus shows the path to higher awareness. The disc is called Sudarshan, the limitless power and light that destroys all forms of ignorance. Thus, Lord Vishnu allows it to cut off the heads of envious demons. It has six spokes and shows the revolving nature of the universe (maya) around an unmoving and changeless center. The Sudarshana Chakra, when shown alone, is often viewed as a person with four, eight, or sixteen arms, holding such items as a bow, arrow, trident, noose, and a poker. These are said to represent the will and power of the Lord to not only create but to also destroy the universe.
The mace represents the cosmic intellect or knowledge. It is called Kaumodaki, meaning that which captivates the mind. It is also associated with time, which destroys all, and is thus also related to Kali, the power of time.
When pictured as a deity, it is viewed as a female with two hands, positioned in respect. The lotus being twirled in His hand shows the revolving or changing nature of the universe. It also indicates the real purpose of human existence, which the Lord invites all to follow.
The Vaijayanti garland (garland of victory) with five rows of flowers that the Lord wears indicates the five senses and the Lord’s illusory power which affect the senses. Its fragrance represents the subtle elements found within the material manifestation. All this reflects the Lord’s mastery of the whole universe, which is created out of the mixing or revolving of the five elements and the universal mind and intellect. The Srivatsa or lock of hair on the Lord’s chest, which indicates the Goddess of Fortune, represents the products of the material creation, or the objects of enjoyment for which all living beings seek. And the gem, called Kaustubha (Treasure of the Ocean) represents the one who enjoys these products. Thus, this world of the enjoyer and the enjoyed is but a piece of decoration for the Lord, a spark of His energy.
Lord Vishnu is also sometimes seen with additional items, such as a bow, called Sharnga. This represents the darker form of false-ego that makes one think he is nothing but the material body, not connected to the Lord. The arrows are the activities of the intellect, which can cut through false-ego when used properly. His fish shaped earrings represent the two processes of knowledge, such as through the sankhya (intellectual) and yoga (intuitive) methods. His armlets represent the three goals of worldly life, namely dharma (righteousness), artha (economic success) and kama (pleasure). Lord Vishnu’s crown represents the highest and incomprehensible reality. The yellow cloth that He wears (Pitambara) is said to indicate the Vedas. Through the Vedic hymns the divine reality is revealed, just as the Lord’s dark color can be seen through the cloth that He wears. And His sacred string, made of three threads, is said to indicate the three letters of the hallowed word AUM.
The various forms of Lord Vishnu are composed of the different arrangements of the four symbols He holds in His four hands. For example, in one form He holds the conch in His lower right hand, the disc in His upper right, the mace in His upper left, and lotus in the lower left. In this form He has the name of Keshava, meaning the Lord with long hair, according to the Padma Purana (Book Four, Chapter 79). In other forms, in which case He holds the items in different hands, He has the names that include, Narayana (the universal shelter), Govinda (saver of the Earth and protector of cows), Madhava (Lord of knowledge), Madhusudana (the destroyer of the demon Madhu), Trivikrama (the one who conquered the three planetary systems), Vamana (the dwarf incarnation), Shridhara (the possessor of fortune), Hrishikesha (Lord of the senses), Padmanabha (whose navel produced the universal lotus), Damodara (who is self-restrained), Sankarshana (who reabsorbs), Vasudeva (one who dwells within), Pradyumna (who has the most wealth), Aniruddha (who no one can oppose), Purushottama (best of all men), Adhoksaja (the expanse of the universe), Nrisimha (the half-man and half-lion form), Achyuta (the inconceivable), Krishna (the dark and all-attractive one), Hari (He who removes obstacles or sorrow), Janardana (He who gives rewards), and Upendra (the brother of Indra).
Lord Vishnu is also called Nilameghashyama for having a dark blue complexion. This represents a number of things, including pure consciousness, the infinite, and the all-pervading power.
At other times Lord Vishnu is seen resting on the coils of the serpent Shesha, also called Ananta. Sheshanaga is the expansion of Lord Balarama, Lord Krishna’s brother, and serves the Lord in this way as the Lord’s support and paraphernalia. Shesha has a thousand heads swinging to and fro over the form of Lord Vishnu, creating a shelter and couch for the Lord. Ananta means endless, and Ananta is endlessly singing the praises and glories of the Lord from His thousand hoods without ever reaching the end. His hoods are also supporting the many planetary systems in the cosmic creation that are orbiting throughout the universe above His heads. Ananta also means endless in terms of the endlessness of cosmic time. This is also represented by His thousand hoods as divisions of time. The material worlds are created within the element of time, and are thus sustained by time. During the process of the universal annihilation, time ceases to exist, in which case the material planets are also forced into obliteration.
Lord Shesha is often seen floating on the causal waters of the Garbhodaka Ocean , which exists on the bottom of the universe. Lord Vishnu is thus resting on Sheshanaga as They float on the ocean. At other times, They are viewed floating on the Kshiramudra, or an ocean of white milk. This represents the Prakriti or the ingredients of the unmanifest material nature in its purest form.
Sometimes, Lord Vishnu is also seen riding on his carrier bird, Garuda. This is a half-man and half-eagle bird, whose name means “Wings of Speech.” It is described that he is huge and has a fierce expression. His color is that of molten gold. He has the head of an eagle with a red beak and feathered wings, and two arms like a man. Different divisions of the Vedas are parts of the body of Garuda. The sound of his wings reflect the utterances of the Vedic hymns, which can carry a person to another world with the speed of light and power of lightning. Thus, it is also the sound of the Veda that carries Lord Vishnu, and which can also transport Him into the hearts and minds of people.


The Samskāra are a series of Sacraments, Sacrifices and Rituals that serve as rites of passage and mark the various stages of the Human life and to signify entry to a particular Ashrama. All Human beings, especially the Dvija or twice-born are required to perform a number of sacrifices with oblations for gods, Ancestors and Guardians in accordance with the Vedic dictums for a Dharmic or righteous life.
Sanskar is a commonly used variant of the Sanskrit word ‘Samskara’ and signifies cultural heritage and upbringing in modern Hindi.
Most Vedic rituals consist of Homa – fire sacrifies of elaborate and intrinsic designs and complex methodology, accompanied by recitation of Vedas by qualified Priests in honor of a particular Demigod or god, fire offerings of various ingredients, gifts to be given in charity, presence of elders for blessings, amidst sanctified sacrificial grounds, sacred herbs and good omens. Each important milestone of a Human life is to be celebrated by undertaking a particular Samskara wherein the significance of that milestone is ritualistically conveyed.
“Samskaras” mean sacraments. According to Max Mueller,” the prescription of these ceremonies reflect the deep rooted tendency in the heart of man to bring the chief events of human life into contact with a higher power, and to give to our joys and suffering a deeper significance and a religious sanctification.” Samskaras are rooted in the Rig-Veda, although the Atharva-veda is rich in mantras relating to marriage and funeral ceremonies. The objective of the Samskaras, are several. The removal of evil spirits, invoking blessings from gods for material gains, longevity and good progeny, are a few of these. The common thread holding all Samskaras is the worship of Agni (fire God) and Varuna (rain God) and the sprinkling or sipping of the holy water to wash away evil spirits and impurities. Different Mantras are chanted and different gods are worshipped depending upon the ceremony.
The Dharma sutras being mostly occupied with the Hindu laws and custom, not all of them care to describe or enumerate the Samskaras. They contain rules about the Upanayana. Vivcha, Upakarma, Utsarjana, Anadhybyas and Asaucha. The Gautama -Dharmasutra gives a list of altogether forty Samskcras with eight virtues of the soul (Chatvcrimsat samskarah, Astau Atmagunah)
Samskaras are Fifty two in number. They are
1) Garbhadaana
The rite through which a man placed his seed in a woman was called Garbhadhana. Saunaka gives the similar definition though in slightly different words; “The rite by the performance of which a woman receives semen scattered (by her husband) is call Garbhalambhanam or Garbhadhana.”
The Garbhadhana Samskara is a purely spiritual act as is confirmed by Lord Krishna in the Bhagavad-gita 7.11. Such sex aimed at creating godly children is as good as God Himself.
” balam balavatam caham
dharmaviruddho bhutesu
kamo ‘smi bharatarsabha”
“I am the strength of the strong, devoid of passion and desire. I am sex life which is not contrary to religious principles, O lord of the Bharatas [Arjuna].”
2) Pumsuvana
” Pumnamno narakadyasmat traya
tepitaram sutah” – Manusmrti “
his ceremony (Samskaara) is to be performed either on the sec-ond or third or fourth month. The preferable stars for the performance are
Punarvasu, Pushya, Anuradha, Moola, Shravana, Ashvini And Mrigasirsha (Male Stars). The purpose of this ceremony is to instill faithand confidence in the mother to beget a male Child.The scriptural sanction for this ceremony is authenticated by the following Mantra.
Pumanagnih. Pumanindrah. Puman devo Br.haspatih.
Pumamsam Putram Vindasva tam Pumananujayatam
“Agni,Indra, Brhaspati are all endowed with manlyvigour. Oh, Lady! May you beget a male child, and the prog-eny succeeding him be also Vigorous”.
3) Seemantham.
This is performed during the period between the fifth and the eighth months of pregnancy. The specific materials used during this Samskara, that are for the lady only, are, the quill of a porcupine, an ear of ripe paddy and some Udumbara leaves. The deity invoked is Rika, the presiding deity of the full-moon.Their implications are: that the pregnancy should be fruitful; the child should be endowed with sharp and penetrating intellect (like the sharp quill of the porcupine). The child should be beautiful like the full-moon. The gist of the Mantra is: “I beseech the goddess Raka. May she make this ceremony blameless. May my son be endowed with sharp intellect.”
The woman is dressed in new clothes and jewelry used for such occasions. Among some Nairs of Malabarm two local ritualistic additions called ariyidal and Garbha Prashnam are performed. In the ariyidal the seated pregnant lady is given rice and appams in her lap. In the Garbha Prashnam, an astrologer prescribes ritualistic remedies (if needed) for the protection of the mother and child as well as for smooth child birth in the event of any astrological obstacles. Afterwards, the pregnant lady visits four temples, including her own ancestral temple and prays to the deities for a healthy child and for a smooth delivery. After this she begins to observe Pula or birth pollution, which extends up to 15 days after childbirth. The family then holds a feast for all the relatives. Medicines and routines are prescribed for the woman, which are to be followed till childbirth. Ladies are asked to sing: “Be a mother of heroic sons” thus creating a heroic atmosphere. The mother fasts and keeps silent after the ceremony till night time when the stars become visible. At the close of the ceremony she touches a male calf, symbolizing a son.
At the time of pregnancy this is performed for the health and wealth of to born Baby and also for normal delivery.
4) Jatha -karma
After a child is born, a ceremony called Jatakarma Samskara is held to welcome the new born baby into the world and into the house. The father of the baby puts a small amount of honey and ghee in the baby’s mouth(though it received flak in later time to feed a new born baby anything other than milk). After this, the name of Lord Krishna is said in the child’s ear.
After ten days of the birth of the child, Namakarana is organized.
5) Nama karanam
Namakarana is the ceremony organized to name the baby. The name is decided according to the Jatakaratna of the child depending on the time at which the child was born and depending on the position of the planets at that time. The child is neatly dressed in new clothes. The decided name of the child is whispered in his ear three times by his father and is written on the rice filled in a plate to symbolically announce it.
6) Anna-Prasanam
This sanskar is related to the time when the child is to be given solid food apart from the mother’s milk. The object of this ceremony is to pray to the gods with Vedic Mantras to bless the child with good digestive powers, good thoughts and talents. It is performed when the child is six months old which is the weaning time. The father feeds a little of the sweet food anointed with gold to the child with Mantras that say he feeds the child with food that may ensure a healthy life to the child and prevent ill-health. Annaprashana ceremony should be performed at the time when the child gains strength to digest cereal and preparations made from cereals. The first feeding of cereal commences with this ceremony. He who desires his child to be brilliant and famous should feed cooked rice mixed with ghee (clarified butter) or the rice mixed with honey, curd and ghee . The samskar ceremony for the first feeding commences with prayer, followed by Svastivachana, Shanitkarana and complete Samanya Prakarana. It is indicated that this ceremony should be performed (when the child is six months old) on the day on which the child was born.
7) Chooda karma.
Chudakarana also called Chaula or Chudakarma, this is the ceremony in which a child’s head is shaved for the first time, leaving a tuft on the crown. ‘Chuda’ refers to this tuft. This ceremony is also commonly called ‘mundan’ in the north.
This sanskara developed for reasons of physical hygiene. Usually performed when the child is approximately three years old, it is believed to have the power to cleanse the body and soul. The hair on a child’s head when he emerges from the womb is considered impure and must be shaved off to make way for the strong, clean hair that grows thereafter. In addition, to shave the head, a razor or other sharp instrument was required. Chudakarana is also a symbolic release of the child from his mother. Usually by three, the child is no longer being nursed by the mother, and is no longer physically dependent on her. During the Chudakarana, even the hair that he was born with is removed. Therefore this ceremony is believed to mark the point in the child’s life when the mother’s influence is reduced, and the influence of the father becomes dominant. With the father’s influence, the child’s education is also believed to begin.
8) Upanayanam
In Hinduism, Upanayana, or ceremony to mark stages in the life of a Hindu. It is a religious ceremony undertaken by Hindu boys of the three highest castes. The ceremony usually takes place between the ages 7 and 11, indicating the entry into adulthood and the ability to deepen the individual’s awareness of the duties they now embrace as a Hindu. During the ceremony, a sacred thread is tied. The thread is made up of three separate threads, each with a symbolic meaning – one meaning to worship God, one meaning to show love and respect to parents, and one meaning to learn from the religious teacher. Mantras from the Hindu scripture the Rig Veda are used during the ceremony. The ceremony may end with the boy acting out his departure on religious pilgrimage, re-enacting the ways of those in the past who set out to study under the tuition of a religious guide.
9 to12 Veda Vrathas
Four Veda vrathas.1.Prajapatya 2.Sowmya 3.Agneya 4.Vaishvadeva Performed After Completed Vedic Education
13)Samavarthanam (snanam)
(When studies are completed)
Then comes the end of the student stage, the Samavartana. The student, having completed the Vedic studies and the Vratas, presents his preceptor with a gift and obtains permission to take the formal bath which marks the close of his student-career. He returns home and performs the Samavartana, the returning ceremony. He is now ready to marry and enter the second stage or Grihastha Asrama, the life of a householder.
14) Marriage (Vivaham).
Vivaha means support to sustain. Sustain Dharma. Solemnized, with Agni as the witness. The marriage is complete when the couple take seven steps together (Saptapadi).
15 to 19 PanchaMaha Yagya
The meaning of Yagna is not confined to this sacrificial ritual. It has a much wider and deeper meaning. The word Yagna is derived from the Sanskrit verb yaj, which has a three-fold meaning: worship of deities (deva-pujana), unity (sangatikarana) and charity (daana). The philosophy of Yagna teaches a way of living in the society in harmony and a lifestyle which promotes and protects higher human values in the society, which is indeed the basis of an ideal human culture.
1. Brahma Yaj~nam , which is performed through the recitation of the VdAs and helps to discharge the debt to Vedic rishis or manthra drashtAs . They collected the Veda samhithAs through their spiritual powers .
2. Deva Yaj~nA, which requires the performance of pujAs and Yaj~nAs for Gods .
3. Pithru Yaj~nAs : The debt to one’s ancestors is discharged through the offering of pindAs during the tarpaNAs as oblations.
4. Maanushya Yaj~nA : The athithi sathkAram or feeding of one’s guest with respect , discharges one of his debts to the community . [Serving and helping humanity Feeding the hungry Clothing the naked Sheltering the homelessComforting the sad Rich are the stewards of the poor]
5. BhUta Yaj~nA : This samskArA consists of feeding the living entities other than human beings [Feeding poor, animals, birds] . Offerings are made to them as they are an extended set of human family.
20 to 26 Saptha Paka Yagyas
1) Ashtaka, 2) Parvana Sthaleepaka, 3) Masi Sradha, 4) sravanee. 5) Aagrahaayanee, 6) Chaithree, 7) Aaswayujee.
“Pakayajnas” are minor sacrifices and are performed at home in the aupasanagni or grhyagni . These are seven in number .They are Ashtaka , Sthalipaka , Parvana , Sravani , Agrahayani , Chaitri , Ashvayuji. The sthalipaka is to be performed on every Prathama (first day of the lunar fortnight) “Sthali” is the pot in which rice is cooked; it must be placed on the aupasana fire and the rice called “Charu” cooked in it must be offered into the same fire. The Parvana is to be performed every month . The other five are to be performed once a year .
27 to 33 Saptha Havir Yagyas
1) Agni Aadheyam, 2) Agni Hothram 3) Darsa Purna maasam 4) Chathurmasyam, 5) Aagrayanam, 6) Niruuda Pasubandham, 7) Southramanee.
The “haviryajnas” are more elaborate, though not as large in scale as the somayajnas. The haviryajna performed on every Prathama day ( every fifteen days )is “darsa-purna-isti”, “darsa” meaning the new moon and “purna” the full moon. The two rituals are also referred to merely as “isti”. The Darsapaurnamasa isti is the “prakrti” (archetype) for the haviryajnas. The first four haviryajnas – adhana, agnihotra, darsa-purna-masa and agrayana – are performed at home. The last three haviryajnas – caturmasya, nirudhapasubandha and sautramani – are performed in a yajnasala.
The Agnihotra is to be performed twice daily at sunrise and sunset immediately after the aupasana .The other five Havir yagnas are to be performed once a year , or at least once in a life time .
The last two havir yagnas have animal sacrifice as part of the ritual . However nowadays packets of flour etc are used as symbolic substitutes .
34 to 40 Saptha Soma Yagyas
1) Agnishtoomam, 2) Athyagnishtoomam, 3) Ukthyam, 4) Shoodasee, 5)Vajapeyam, 6) Athirathram, 7) Apthooryaamam.
The name “somayajna” is called after the juice of the Soma plant, said to be “relished by the devas”, that is offered as an oblation. In these sacrifices, Samans are sung, and all Shrauta priests – the hotar, adhvaryu, udgatar and the brahman as well as their 12 helpers take part: each priest is assisted by three others. The Agnistoma, the first of the seven somayajnas is the “prakrti” (archetype) for the six others that are its “vikrti”. These six are: atyagnistoma, uktya, sodasi, vajapeya, atiratra and aptoryama. “Vajapeya” is often regarded as particularly important. When its yajamana (sacrificer) comes after the ritual bath (avabhrtha snana) at the conclusion of the sacrifice, the king himself holds up a white umbrella for him. “Vaja” means ‘prize of a race’ (but is nowadays also taken as rice, food) and “peya” means a drink, thus ‘drink of victory’. This sacrifice consists of the offering of soma-rasa (juice), pasu-homa (offering of 23 animals) and anna- or vaja-homa. The sacrificer is “bathed” in the rice that is left over. Since the rice is “poured over” him like water, the term “vajapeya” is apt.
Animal sacrifices are part of the ritual offerings in the soma yagnas . However , nowadays as and when they are rarely performed , substitutes made of flour etc are used instead of sacrificing live animals . 

40 to 48 Athma Gunas
The eight gunas or qualities of the Self are are: daya, kshanti, anasuya, sauca, anayasa, mangala, akarpanya, aspriha.
“Daya” implies love for all creatures, such love being the very fulfillment of life. There is indeed no greater happiness than that derived by loving others. Daya is the basis of all qualities.
“Kshanti” is patience. One kind of kshanti is patiently suffering disease, poverty, misfortune and so on. The second is forgiveness and it implies loving a person even if he causes us pain and trouble.
“Anasuya” you know is the name of the sage Atri’s wife. She was utterly free from jealousy: that is how she got the name which means non-jealousy. Heart-burning caused by another’s prosperity or status is jealousy. We ought to have love and compassion for all and ought to be patient and forgiving even towards those who do us wrong. We must not envy people their higher status even if they be less deserving of it than we are and, at the same time, must be mature enough to regard their better position as the reward they earned by doing good in their previous life. “Sauca” is derived from “suci”, meaning cleanliness. Purity is to be maintained in all matters such as bathing, dress, food.
In Manu’s listing of Dharmas that are applicable to all, ahimsa or non-violence comes first, followed by satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-covetousness; non-stealing is the direct meaning), sauca (cleanliness) and indriya-nigraha (subduing the senses or even obliterating them).
“anayasa”. It is the opposite of “ayasa” which denotes effort, exertion, etc. Anayasa means to have a feeling of lightness, to take things easy. One must not keep a long face, scowl or keep lamenting one’s hardships. If you lose your cool you will be a burden to yourself as well as to others. Anayasa is a great virtue. In many of our rituals there is much bodily exertion. Here Anayasa means not to feel any mental strain. Obstacles, inevitable to any work or enterprise, must not cause you any mental strain. You must not feel any duty to be a burden and must develop the attitude that everything happens according to the will of the Lord.
“mangala”, is auspiciousness. There is mangala or an auspicious air about happiness that is characterised by dignity and purity. One must be cheerful all the time and not keep growling at people on the slightest pretext. This itself is extremely helpful, to radiate happiness wherever we go and exude auspiciousness. It is better than making lavish gifts and throwing money about.
To do a job with a feeling of lightness is ” Anayasa “. To be light ourselves, creating joy wherever we go, is mangala. We must be like a lamp spreading light and should never give cause for people to say, “Oh! he has come to find fault with everything.” Wherever we go we must create a sense of happiness. We must live auspiciously and make sure that there is happiness brimming over everywhere.
“Akarpanya” Miserliness is the quality of a krpana or miser. “Akarpanya” is the opposite of miserliness. We must give generously and whole-heartedly. At Kuruksetra Arjuna felt dejected and refused to wage war with his own kin. In doing so, according to the Gita, he was guilty of “karpanya dosha”. It means, contextually, that he abased himself to a woeful state, he became “miserly” about himself. Akarpanya is the quality of a courageous and zestful person who can face problems determinedly. “Aspriha” is the last of the eight qualities. “Spriha” means desire; a grasping nature. “Aspriha” is the opposite, being without desire. Desire is at the root of all trouble, all suffering and, all through the ages, it has been the cause of misfortunes. But to eradicate it from the mind seems an almost impossible task. By performing rites again and again and by constantly endeavouring to acquire the Atmic qualities one will eventually become desireless.

49 Grihastha Asrama
is the householder stage, which starts from 25 years and lasts till 50 years. In this stage, one marries, has a family, and works to maintain the family and society, in order to fulfil the emotional needs, the kama aspect.
50 VanprasthaAsrama
is life after retirement and lasts from 50 to 75 years. This retirement highlights the fact that all beings, including the members of one’s own family, have their own destiny to fulfil. It is futile to interfere with the destiny of one’s children or grandchildren. However rich you may be, you cannot change the destiny of others. But you can provide positive and good quality samskaras so that they can work out their own life and destiny.
51 Sanyasa Ashrama.
The concept of sannyasa ashrama begins from 75 years and lasts till 100 years or death. It is to maintain a balanced view of life. In pain and pleasure, in justice and injustice, one must maintain internal harmony and equilibrium.
52 Anthyeshti
(Funeral Samskaras)
The Hindu belief is that the soul is eternal, that is, it never dies. It continues to go through many rebirths until it merges with the supreme God, Brahman, and becomes free from . The soul, called atman, is given a new life and body as an appropriate reward for the kind of life he led before. During the period between one’s death and the next birth, one’s soul remains in a subtle form (that which cannot be seen) and roams in space until it enters another body at its birth.
Hindus cremate their dead because they believe that the physical body is not needed any more and it is the immortal soul that is important. It is believed that the body is made up of five elements which are earth, water, air, fire and either and that the God of Fire transports these five elements to their respective sources at death. Agni (holy fire) is the purifying agent that enables the soul to be liberated from the physical body.
Hindus believe that death generates negative attitudes like sorrow and grief in those who mourn the passing away of a loved one. It is believed that these negative attitudes will be passed on to others so the mourners stay at home and do not go out to mingle with people until the Anthyeshti or the funeral ceremony has been completed.
The Anthyeshti is to give a send-off to the soul of the deceased by the family members. The soul remains in the vicinity until the ceremony is completed.

15 Famous Festivals Of India


India is a land of festivals, where people from different religions coexist harmoniously. The wide  variety of festivals celebrated in India is a true manifestation of its rich culture and traditions. While the celebrations happen all over the year, October till January is the time when the country can be seen at its vibrant best.

Here is a quick list of the most famous festivals of India.

1. Diwali

A collage of the festivities of Diwali

Diwali, the most prominent Hindu festival of India, is celebrated with a lot of pomp and show. During this festival of lights, houses are decorated with clay lamps, candles, and Ashok leaves. People wear new clothes, participate in family puja, burst crackers, and share sweets with friends, families, and neighbors.

Significance: The festival marks the return of Lord Rama, along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana, after a long exile of 14 years.

Key attractions: Homes decorated with fancy lights, candles and clay lamps, bustling shops and markets, and fireworks and crackers

When: The darkest new moon night of Kartik month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds to mid-October – mid-November as per the Gregorian Calendar

Where: All over the country

2. Holi

A collage of Holika bonfire and holi celebrations

Also known as the festival of colors, holi is one of the famous festivals of India, celebrated with a lot of fervor across the country. On the eve of Holi, people make huge Holika bonfires and sing and dance around it. On the day of Holi, people gather in open areas and apply dry and wet colors of multiple hues to each other, with some carrying water guns and colored water filled balloons.

Significance: It signifies the victory of good (Prince Prahlad) over evil (Holika) and the arrival of spring.

Key attractions:  Holika bonfire, playing with colors, and bhang thandai

When: Full moon (Purnima) of the Phalgun month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds to the month of March of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Almost all over the country; most vibrant celebrations can be seen in North Indian states

3. Dusshera

Celebrations of Dussehra in Delhi

Dussehra, also referred to as Vijayadashami, is also among the most famous festivals of India. It is celebrated in different forms countrywide. Ramlila(enactment of scenes from Ramayana) is held everywhere for 10 days. It’s culminated with “Ravan Dahan” – the burning of huge effigies of Ravana, Meghnath and kumbhakaran which is a real spectacle to see.

Significance: It celebrates the death of the demon king Ravana at the hands of Lord Rama.

Key attractions: Hustle bustle of the decorated markets, Ram-leela acts, and the big event of the burning of effigies of Ravana, Meghnad, and Kumbhakaran

When: 10th day of the month of Ashwin according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds to September or October of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Pan India

4. Navratri

Navratri is one of famous festivals of India

Navratri festival is celebrated by all people throughout India in different ways. In Gujarat, it is a nine day celebration of rejuvenating Garba nights and highly energetic Dandiya Raas dances. People are dressed in beautiful, colorful traditional clothes and the environment is very youthful and invigorating.

Significance: It represents the celebration of the Goddess Amba (Power) in nine different forms.

Key attractions: The 9 days of dance festivities in Gujarat, the exquisite Chaniya Choli’s (traditional skirt & blouse), and the Gujarati cuisine – Sabudana Khichdi, Mandavi Paak, Singoda ki Kheer, and Potato Wafers

When: The first nine days of the month of Ashwin according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which correspond to September or October of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Almost all over the country; most vibrant in Gujarat, Maharashtra and the metros

5. Durga Puja

A man offering aarti to maa during Kolkata Durga Puja celebrations

One of the important festivals of India, Durga Puja is celebrated with grandeur by Bengalis, throughout the country. The 10 days of fast, feast, and worship of Goddess Durga are accompanied by cultural songs, dances, and dramas. Huge and beautiful Durga idols are made and placed in specially made artistic Pandals(canopies). People dress in traditional wear and go around the pandal – hopping, praying, and feasting.

Significance: It commemorates Lord Rama’s invocation of Goddess Durga before going to war with the demon king Ravana.

Key attractions: Plush pandals, incredibly beautiful ten armed Durga idols, and the puja

When: 10th day of Ashwina shukla paksha according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds to September or October of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Kolkata and the metros are the best places to be in India during Durga Puja celebrations

6. Krishna Janmashtami

A collage of the Janamashtmi festival

Janmashtami is again a beautiful one among the most important religious festivals of India. Janmashtami celebrations in Mathura and Vrindavan are very popular. People fast throughout the day and break it with a special meal after dusk. Visiting temples, praying, dancing, and singing bhajans (hymns) at midnight is a part of the celebrations of the birth of Lord Krishna. Often, small children dress up like Lord Krishna on this day. Images and picturization of Krishna’s life story are depicted in the “jhaankis” in temples.

Significance: It is the annual celebration of the birthday of Lord Krishna.

Key attractions: The Janmashtami puja and festivities in the temples and the jhaankis of Lord Krishna

When: The 8th day (Ashtami) of the Krishna Paksha (dark fortnight) of the month of Bhadrapad according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds to August or September of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Celebrated by the Hindu community all over, but the festivities at Mathura and Vrindavan are very popular

7. Ganesh Chaturthi

A collage of the festivities of Ganesh Chaturthi

Ganesh Chaturthi, another one of important Hindu religious festivals of India, is a 10-day affair of colorful festivities. Huge handcrafted Ganesh idols are installed in homes or outdoors, in public pandals. Pujas are performed in the morning and the evening. The last day is the day of Visarjan – immersion of an idol in a water body. Cultural activities of singing, dancing, and theater, and free medical and blood donation camps are held.

Significance:  It’s the birthday of Lord Ganesha, the elephant-headed God.

Key attractions: The beautifully crafted life size idols of Ganesha, and the immersion ceremony

When: The  4th day of the first fortnight (Shukla Chaturthi) in the month of Bhadrapada of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds to August or September of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Celebrated in the states of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh with fervor and gaiety

8. Gurupurab

A collage of the festivities of Gurupurab

On the most important Sikh festival of India, special assemblies on the lives and teachings of the gurus, and langars (community meals) are organized in the gurudwaras. Karah Prasad is distributed among all, and hymn chanting processions are held in the city. People light up their homes with lamps and candles and burst crackers to celebrate Gurpurab.

Significance: It is the celebration of the anniversaries of the ten Sikh Gurus.

Key attractions: The soulful Bhajan-Kirtan (hymns), Gurbani in the Gurdwaras, the Langar and the Karah Prasad

When: The full moon day in the month of Kartik of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds
to November of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Celebrated by the Sikh community all over the world, especially in Punjab

9. Raksha Bandhan

The thali of rakhi on Raksha Bandhan

One of the famous festivals of India, Rakhi is celebrated among Hindu. Signifying the  brother-sister bonding, during Rakhi, the sister performs Aarti (prayer), applies tilak, and ties rakhi (a sacred thread) on the brother’s wrist wishing his well being. The brother, in return, vows to protect the sister. Another festival which has strong similarity to Rakhi is Bhaidooj which comes just after Diwali.

Significance:  It symbolizes the strong bonding of a brother and sister.

Key attractions: The ritual of Rakhi and the brightly decked up markets showcasing a colourful variety of rakhis and sweets

When: The full moon day of Shravana month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which corresponds to August of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Particularly in North, Central and West India

10. Eid-Ul-Fitr

A collage of the festivities of Eid

Eid is one of the major festivals of India for the Muslim community. People dress up in fineries, attend a special community prayer in the morning, visit friends, and relatives and exchange sweets. Children are given idi(money or gift) by elders.

Significance: It celebrates the conclusion of the holy month of fasting called Ramadan.

Key attractions:  The beautifully decked up markets and mosques, the morning Eid namaz at the mosques, and the sweet dishes.

When: On the 1st day of the month of Shawwal of the lunar Hijri calendar, which corresponds to July of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Celebrated by Muslims all over the country

11. Bihu

Dancers dancing to celebrate the Bihu festival

Popular among the festivals of India celebrated in the North East, Bihu is the harvest festival of Assam. During the month-long celebrations, young men and women wear their traditional clothes and perform the Bihu dance in the village fields and courtyards. A community feast is held with a lot of fanfare.

Significance: It’s the traditional new year celebration of Assamese.

Key attractions: The Bihu dance and the local cuisine – coconut laddoo, til pitha, ghila pitha, and fish pitika

When: 14th or 15th April

Where: Celebrated by the Assamese diaspora around the world, especially in Assam

12. Hemis

Priests dressed up for the Hemis festival

Hemis, the two-day religious festival from Ladakh, is one of the important festivals of India. It attracts a lot of locals and foreign tourists each year. The festivities include theCham dance done by the priests to the tune of the traditional music of cymbals, drums, trumpets played by the monks. The dancing priests dress up in elaborate brocade outfits and masks.

Significance: It’s the celebration of the birth anniversary of spiritual leader Padmasambhava, founder of Tibet Tantric Buddhism.

Key attractions:  The scenic Hemis monastery and the Cham dance

When: 10th day (called Tse-Chu in the local language) of the Tibetan lunar month, which corresponds to June or July of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir

13. Onam

Onam is one of the important festivals of India

Onam is among the important festivals of India, wherein people wear traditional wear, adorn houses with Pookalam (floral designs), and prepare Onasadya(elaborate meal of 11/13 dishes). Events such as Vallamkali(snake boat race), Kaikottikali(clap dance), Kathakali dance, and Pulikali procession(artists dressed and painted like tigers and hunters) are held.

Significance: It celebrates the homecoming of the legendary king Mahabali.

Key attractions: The spectacular Snake Boat Race, the enigmatic Kaikottikali dance, and the Elephant procession

When: In the month of Chingam of the  Malayalam calendar, which corresponds to August or September of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Celebrated by people of all communities in the state of Kerala.

14. Pongal

A collage of scenes of Pongal - one of the religious festivals of India for the Tamils

The four-day long harvest festival of South India is one of the most famous festivals of India. People prepare Pongal dish and wear their traditional attire. Celebrities include bonfires, dance, cattle races, sweets, and savories. The houses look resplendent with Kolam designs (traditional floral designs made with rice, colored powders, and flower petals)

Significance: It’s a festival of thanksgiving to nature representing the first harvest of the year.

Key attractions: The variety of Kolam designs and cattle races

When: 14th or 15th January

Where: Celebrated by Tamils all over India, primarily in Tamil Nadu

15. Vishu

The idol of Lord Krishna during the Vishu Puja

Vishu, a Hindu festival, is among the most important festivals of India. The festivities include performing the puja, bursting crackers, decorating with lights, buying and wearing new clothes, giving money to children and loved ones, and having the Vishu feast that has equal proportions of salt, sweet, sour and bitter items.

Significance: It is the start of the Hindu New year. People celebrate Vishu to commemorate the return of “Sun God”.

Key attractions: The Vishukkani puja and visit to Guruvayur Shri Krishna temple

When: 1st day of the Zodiac calendar, which corresponds to mid-April of the Gregorian calendar

Where: Celebrated in Kerala

The myriad of important festivals of India boast of the nation’s rich and varied culture and the religious sentiments of the people. So enjoy these festivals and bring your life into a state of exuberance and enthusiasm.

Nose Piercing


Nose piercing is the piercing of the skin or cartilage which forms any part of the nose, normally for the purpose of wearing jewelry. The Hindu women usually have their noses pierced at the age of sixteen which is what is considered to be the age to marry. The piercings honor the goddess of marriage, known as Parvathi.

According to the Indian medicine, the female who get her nose pierced is assumed to experience less pains while delivering the child. The reason behind this belief is, through the piercing some vein is pressed that makes the childbirth easier.

Nose Ring

A piece of stead-like ornament worn by women in their nose, commonly known as nose-ring and nose stead. (known as Mukkuthi or Mookuthi in Tamil & Kannada and Nath in Hindi) Nose ring are usually worn in the left nostril. The reason that the left side is chosen more often is because it is linked with the female reproductive organs.The custom to wear this ornamental jewel is typically different from one state to other, one caste to other and even different amongst communities. Some use it in their left nose, some at right and few wear it in both sides of their nose. Nose stud is widely worn in South India, especially in Tamil Nadu and in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, by both married and unmarried young women.

It is strongly believed that the nose ornaments have their own scientific advantages. By piercing the nose to wear these ornaments the women protect themselves from all nasal infections. It also helps her to have a stronger sense of smell. Call it acupuncture treatment.

In some parts of India the nose ring is never removed once a woman is married, and thus a nose ring is often considered to be a sign of marriage.

All said and done for the Indian woman who wishes to look beautiful in the traditional fashion, her shringar is never complete without the wearing of a sparkling nose ornament.

Guruvar Vrat katha


In Hinduism, each day in a week is dedicated to a particular god in the Hindu pantheon. Thursday, which is Brihaspatiwar or Vrihaspativar, is dedicated to Vishnu and Brihaspati, the Guru of Devas. Thurdsay is also popularly known as Gurubar or Guruvar. Yellow is the color of the day. A fast is observed on the day and food is consumed only once.

There are numerous stories associated with the reason for observing Upvaas, or fast, on Brihaspativar. Many of the stories are part of local folklore and stories vary from region to region.

Almost all stories suggest that those who perform pujas and Vrats on Thursdays will be blessed with wealth and happy life.

Those devotees fasting on the day wears yellow colored dress and offers yellow colored fruits and flowers to Vishnu and Brihaspati. Food is only consumed once and includes Chana Dal (Bengal Gram) and ghee. Basically, yellow colored food is eaten on the day. In some regions, banana or plantain is worshipped and watered. In South canara, the day is dedicated to Lord Ragavendra Swamy.

Lord Brihaspati

According to Mahabharat Aadiparv, Lord Brihaspati is the son of Maharishi Angira and is the priest of Devas. Lord Brihaspati was a great devotee of Lord Shankar. He went to the Prabhas Tirth and prayed to Lord Shankar very deeply. Lord Shankar, pleased by Brihaspati’s devotion, blessed him and gave the position of the ‘Priest of Devas’ and also included Him in the family of Devas. According to Rigved, Lord Brihaspati was very handsome. Lord Brihaspati, when pleased by his devotees, blessed them with wealth, saved them from difficulties and exhorts them to live on right path. Lord Brihaspati travels on a Golden Rath driven by eight speedy yellow coloured horses. According to Rigved the weapon of Lord Brihaspati is a stick (Dand) made up of Gold. Lord Brihaspati had three wives, Shubha, Tara and Mamta. From Shubha, he had seven daughters and from Tara, seven sons and one daughter. The wife Mamta, bore him two sons – Bharadwaj and Kach. Brihaspati is the Lord of Dhanu and Meen rashi.

In the solar system, Guru, Brihaspathi or Jupiter as his popularly known occupies the second largest position after the Sun. Jupiter is revered as celestial preceptor of the Gods. Worship of Bhraspati or Guru (JUPITER) Devata results in a cure from ailments affecting the stomach and helps one to ward off his/her sins, helps him/her in gaining strength, valor, longevity etc. He grants the boon of father-hood to the childless, good education. Thursdays are considered to be the best day for the worship of Jupiter. Following is the katha(story) which is recited by the devotee, who is fasting and praying to Bhraspati Dev on Thursdays.

Varth Katha – I

Once Lord Indra, surrounded by many gods, Rishis, Kinnaras and Gondharvas sat on his throne in a proud mood. As guru Bhraspati reached there all of them except Indra stood up to pay respect. India used to pay obedience to his guru regularly but he showed discourtesy at that time. Bhraspati felt bad and left his palace. As Bhraspati left the palace Lord Indra realised his mistake and repented over his action. He felt that all his luxurious possessions were due to his guru blessings. Guru anger will turn it to dust.Indra decided to go to Bhraspati and tender apology for his action. It may pacify his anger. He went to Bhraspati.

Bhraspati intuited that Indra was coming to his Ashram. He avoided meeting out of anger and disappeared immediately. Lord Indra returned home disappointed. A demon god Vrishvarsha, sensed this situation and went to his guru Shukracharya. He begged his gum permission to attack Indrapuri, the kingdom of Lord India in those circumstances. Shukracharya permitted him. The demon god surrounded Indrapuri and made a sudden attack. In the absence of Guru Bhraspati blessings the gods lost all battles one after the other.

After his defeat the gods went to Lord Brahma and related the whole story. He begged for safety and asked for some strategy. Lord Brahma said, You have not done good by disgracing Bhraspati. Anyway go to Vishwaroopa the learned son of Twashta. Request him to become your priest. His blessings can save you. They went to Twashta and sought his blessings. Twashta said, By becoming your priest I do not want to lessen my virtues. But you go to my son Vishwaroopa. He will oblige you by accepting your request for priesthood.

All the gods went to Vishwaroopa and requested him to become their family priest for performing Yajna. He accepted their request. By Vishwaroopa grace demon Vrishvarsha was defeated and Lord India regained his kingdom. Lord India was happy. He implored Vishwaroopa to perform a special yajna for further gains. Vishwaroopa agreed. Vishwaroopa had three mouths. With one mouth he sucked the juice of Sompalli a special creeper. From the second mouth he used to drink wine. He used his third mouth for eating meals.

Vishwaroopa started performing Yajna. The demon gods were frightened. They thought a plan to undo the Yajna effects. One of the demon god went to Vishwaroopa and implored, Honourable Sir, do you know that you belong to demon genealogy from your mother side. Your mother is the daughter of a demon god. While performing Yajna kindly make some offerings in the names of demon gods for their happiness. Vishwaroopa agreed to his request. He made some silent offerings to demon gods so that no one may hear it. The result was that the Yajna advantages were divided between dieties and demon gods.When Lord Indra came to know the treachery he beheaded Vishwaroopa in a state of extreme anger. One of his mouth from which he took wine, turned into a black bee. The second which he used for sucking Sompalli juice became a piglion while the third one used for taking meals was transformed into a partridge.

Lord Indras body was immediately deformed due to sacrelige, the murder of a Brahman. All the gods made repentance for one year but it had no effect on India . They approached Lord Brahma for seeking some remedy to redeem India from the sacrelige. Lord Brahma accompanied by Bhraspati went to Indra. He decided the sacrelige act into four parts.The first part was given to the earth. As a result the earth became uneven. Some of its portion became barren. But as a boon he said that the earth would develop power to fill the khuds automatically.

The second part of the sacrelige was given to the trees and as a result they began to ooze gum. But as a boon he said that the gum of guggul – bdellium olibanum – will be treated pure and they would have the power to rebud from their roots though their upper portion may be dried up.

The third part of the sacrelige was given to the woman folk and so they experience menstruation. As a boon he blessed them to the pure or chaste on the fourth day and capable to give birth to children.

The fourth portion. of the sacrelige was given to water. As a result it is covered with aquatic plant or Shaivaal. As a boon the object in which it is added gains weight.

In this way Lord Brahma freed Indra from the heinous crime by dividing it into four places. Who so ever reads or listens this story is blessed by Bhraspati.

Varth katha – II

Once there was a young girl. She used to water a banana tree. She also used to play under it. One day a strange voice came as if fluttering from its leaves. The girl got frightened and ran away. Next day the girl was again watering the tree. She heard the same voice. She took courage. The voice said, Will you play with me? Will you play with me? The young girl looked here and there. She could locate nobody there. She started to grow weaker and weaker. Her mother noted this change. One day the mother said, My dear girl, what is wrong with you? Why are you losing your health despite best food?

The young girl said, 1 water my banana tree everyday. I hear a strange voice from it. The voice says Will you please play with me? I see no one around me. The mother heard her daughter and said smilingly, You are a very innocent girl. The banana goddess is pleased with you. You welcome her tomorrow for playing.
The girl heard the same voice the next day. She invited her to play with her. After the play was over, the goddess of banana or Lakshmi said to the girl, Will you please accompany me to my house for lunch? The girl said, Have you a house too? The goddess took her to her palace through the hollow of the banana tree and served her with best sweets and fruit in gold and silver pots. She offered her various types of costly gifts. When the girl returned, her mother was happy. She said to her daughter, “Have you offered your friend a return visit? You must invite her next day.
The girl said, We are very poor. How can I extend invitation to her? Our utensils are broken. Our clothes are shabby and torn. We have nothing to sit upon. The mother said, Service and courtesy will compensate for them. We will dean our house and give her a warm welcome. The girl agreed to her mother advice. When she met the goddess the next day, she extended to her invitation for visiting her house. The goddess accepted the invitation. She accompanied the girl to her house the next day. The goddess had hardly stepped into the house when it was converted into a beautiful palace. The broken utensils turned into shining gold and silver ones. The shabby and torn clothes became new and attractive. The ordinary meal prepared by the family tasted like mana. As she was about to leave, the goddess blessed the family with a happy future. The girl mother requested the goddess to stay with them permanently.
The goddess said, 1 am goddess Lakshmi. I am of very unstable and fickle-minded. I cannot commit to stay with you all the time. So long as you work hard and water the banana trees, I shall be there in form of banana fruit. Your business will flourish day by day. Water banana tree, especially on Thursdays.
The goddess then disappeared from the scene leaving plenty of wealth for the family.

गुरूवार या वीरवार को भगवान बृहस्पति की पूजा का विधान है. बृहस्पति देवता को बुद्धि और शिक्षा का देवता माना जाता है. गुरूवार को बृहस्पति देव की पूजा करने से धन, विद्या, पुत्र तथा मनोवांछित फल की प्राप्ति होती है. परिवार में सुख तथा शांति रहती है. गुरूवार का व्रत जल्दी विवाह करने के लिये भी किया जाता है.

Hindu Thursday Brihaspativarगुरूवार व्रत की विधि : Bhraspativar (Guruvar) Vrat

लेकिन गुरूवार की पूजा करते समय यह ध्यान रखना चाहिए कि पूजा विधि-विधान के अनुसार हो. व्रत वाले दिन प्रात: काल उठकर बृहस्पति देव का पूजन करना चाहिए. वृ्हस्पति देव का पूजन पीली वस्तुएं, पीले फूल, चने की दान, पीली मिठाई, पीले चावल आदि का भोग लगाकर किया जाता है. इस व्रत में केले का पूजन ही करें. कथा और पूजन के समय मन, कर्म और वचन से शुद्घ होकर मनोकामना पूर्ति के लिये वृहस्पतिदेव से प्रार्थना करनी चाहिए. दिन में एक समय ही भोजन करें. भोजन चने की दाल आदि का करें, नमक न खा‌एं, पीले वस्त्र पहनें, पीले फलों का प्रयोग करें, पीले चंदन से पूजन करें. पूजन के बाद भगवान बृहस्पति की कथा सुननी चाहिये .

guru_jupiterगुरूवार व्रत की कथा Bhraspativar (Guruvar) Vrat Katha

प्राचीन समय की बात है. किसी राज्य में एक बड़ा प्रतापी तथा दानी राजा राज्य करता था. वह प्रत्येक गुरूवार को व्रत रखता एवं भूखे और गरीबों को दान देकर पुण्य प्राप्त करता था परन्तु यह बात उसकी रानी को अच्छा नहीं लगता था. वह न तो व्रत करती थी और न ही किसी को एक भी पैसा दान में देती थी और राजा को भी ऐसा करने से मना करती थी.

एक समय की बात है, राजा शिकार खेलने को वन को चले गए थे. घर पर रानी और दासी थी. उसी समय गुरु वृहस्पतिदेव साधु का रूप धारण कर राजा के दरवाजे पर भिक्षा मांगने को आए. साधु ने जब रानी से भिक्षा मांगी तो वह कहने लगी, हे साधु महाराज, मैं इस दान और पुण्य से तंग आ गई हूं. आप कोई ऐसा उपाय बताएं, जिससे कि सारा धन नष्ट हो जाए और मैं आराम से रह सकूं.

बृहस्पतिदेव ने कहा, हे देवी, तुम बड़ी विचित्र हो, संतान और धन से कोई दुखी होता है. अगर अधिक धन है तो इसे शुभ कार्यों में लगाओ, कुवांरी कन्याओं का विवाह कराओ, विद्यालय और बाग़-बगीचे का निर्माण कराओ, जिससे तुम्हारे दोनों लोक सुधरें, परन्तु साधु की इन बातों से रानी को ख़ुशी नहीं हुई. उसने कहा- मुझे ऐसे धन की आवश्यकता नहीं है, जिसे मैं दान दूं और जिसे संभालने में मेरा सारा समय नष्ट हो जाए.

तब साधु ने कहा- यदि तुम्हारी ऐसी इच्छा है तो मैं जैसा तुम्हें बताता हूं तुम वैसा ही करना. बृहस्पतिवार के दिन तुम घर को गोबर से लीपना, अपने केशों को पीली मिटटी से धोना, केशों को धोते समय स्नान करना, राजा से हजामत बनाने को कहना, भोजन में मांस मदिरा खाना, कपड़ा धोबी के यहां धुलने डालना. इस प्रकार सात बृहस्पतिवार करने से तुम्हारा समस्त धन नष्ट हो जाएगा. इतना कहकर साधु रुपी बृहस्पतिदेव अंतर्ध्यान हो गए.

साधु के कहे अनुसार करते हुए रानी को केवल तीन वृहस्पतिवार ही बीते थे कि उसकी समस्त धन-संपत्ति नष्ट हो गई. भोजन के लिए राजा का परिवार तरसने लगा. तब एक दिन राजा रानी से बोला- हे रानी, तुम यहीं रहो, मैं दूसरे देश को जाता हूं, क्योंकि यहां पर सभी लोग मुझे जानते हैं. इसलिए मैं कोई छोटा कार्य नहीं कर सकता. ऐसा कहकर राजा परदेश चला गया. वहां वह जंगल से लकड़ी काटकर लाता और शहर में बेचता. इस तरह वह अपना जीवन व्यतीत करने लगा. इधर, राजा के परदेश जाते ही रानी और दासी दुखी रहने लगी.

एक बार जब रानी और दासी को सात दिन तक बिना भोजन के रहना पड़ा, तो रानी ने अपनी दासी से कहा- हे दासी, पास ही के नगर में मेरी बहन रहती है. वह बड़ी धनवान है. तू उसके पास जा और कुछ ले आ ताकि थोड़ा-बहुत गुजर-बसर हो जाए. दासी रानी के बहन के पास गई. उस दिन बृहस्पतिवार था और रानी की बहन उस समय बृहस्पतिवार व्रत की कथा सुन रही थी. दासी ने रानी की बहन को अपनी रानी का सन्देश दिया, लेकिन रानी की बड़ी बहन ने कोई उत्तर नहीं दिया. जब दासी को रानी की बहन से कोई उत्तर नहीं मिला तो वह बहुत दुखी हुई और उसे क्रोध भी आया. दासी ने वापस आकर रानी को सारी बात बता दी. सुनकर रानी ने अपने भाग्य को कोसा. उधर, रानी की बहन ने सोचा कि मेरी बहन की दासी आई थी, परन्तु मैं उससे नहीं बोली, इससे वह बहुत दुखी हुई होगी. कथा सुनकर और पूजन समाप्त कर वह अपनी बहन के घर आई और कहने लगी- हे बहन, मैं बृहस्पतिवार का व्रत कर रही थी. तुम्हारी दासी मेरे घर आई थी परन्तु जब तक कथा होती है, तब तक न तो उठते हैं और न ही बोलते हैं, इसलिए मैं नहीं बोली. कहो दासी क्यों गई थी.

रानी बोली- बहन, तुमसे क्या छिपाऊं, हमारे घर में खाने तक को अनाज नहीं था. ऐसा कहते-कहते रानी की आंखे भर आई. उसने दासी समेत पिछले सात दिनों से भूखे रहने तक की बात अपनी बहन को विस्तारपूर्वक सूना दी. रानी की बहन बोली- देखो बहन, भगवान बृहस्पतिदेव सबकी मनोकामना को पूर्ण करते हैं. देखो, शायद तुम्हारे घर में अनाज रखा हो. पहले तो रानी को विश्वास नहीं हुआ पर बहन के आग्रह करने पर उसने अपनी दासी को अन्दर भेजा तो उसे सचमुच अनाज से भरा एक घड़ा मिल गया. यह देखकर दासी को बड़ी हैरानी हुई. दासी रानी से कहने लगी- हे रानी, जब हमको भोजन नहीं मिलता तो हम व्रत ही तो करते हैं, इसलिए क्यों न इनसे व्रत और कथा की विधि पूछ ली जाए, ताकि हम भी व्रत कर सके. तब रानी ने अपनी बहन से बृहस्पतिवार व्रत के बारे में पूछा.

उसकी बहन ने बताया, बृहस्पतिवार के व्रत में चने की दाल और मुनक्का से विष्णु भगवान का केले की जड़ में पूजन करें तथा दीपक जलाएं, व्रत कथा सुनें और पीला भोजन ही करें. इससे वृहस्पतिदेव प्रसन्न होते हैं. व्रत और पूजन विधि बतलाकर रानी की बहन अपने घर को लौट गई.

सातवें रोज बाद जब गुरूवार आया तो रानी और दासी ने निश्चयनुसार व्रत रखा. घुड़साल में जाकर चना और गुड़ बीन लाई और फिर उसकी दाल से केले की जड़ तथा विष्णु भगवान का पूजन किया. अब पीला भोजन कहां से आए इस बात को लेकर दोनों बहुत दुखी थे. चूंकि उन्होंने व्रत रखा था इसलिए गुरुदेव उनपर प्रसन्न थे. इसलिए वे एक साधारण व्यक्ति का रूप धारण कर दो थालों में सुन्दर पीला भोजन दासी को दे गए. भोजन पाकर दासी प्रसन्न हुई और फिर रानी के साथ मिलकर भोजन ग्रहण किया.

उसके बाद वे सभी गुरूवार को व्रत और पूजन करने लगी. बृहस्पति भगवान की कृपा से उनके पास फिर से धन-संपत्ति हो गया, परन्तु रानी फिर से पहले की तरह आलस्य करने लगी. तब दासी बोली- देखो रानी, तुम पहले भी इस प्रकार आलस्य करती थी, तुम्हें धन रखने में कष्ट होता था, इस कारण सभी धन नष्ट हो गया और अब जब भगवान गुरुदेव की कृपा से धन मिला है तो तुम्हें फिर से आलस्य होता है. बड़ी मुसीबतों के बाद हमने यह धन पाया है, इसलिए हमें दान-पुण्य करना चाहिए, भूखे मनुष्यों को भोजन कराना चाहिए, और धन को शुभ कार्यों में खर्च करना चाहिए, जिससे तुम्हारे कुल का यश बढ़ेगा, स्वर्ग की प्राप्ति हो और पित्तर प्रसन्न हो. दासी की बात मानकर रानी अपना धन शुभ कार्यों में खर्च करने लगी, जिससे पूरे नगर में उसका यश फैलने लगा.

गुरुवार को बृहस्पति भगवान का व्रत रखने से घर में हमेशा सुख-संपत्ति की बहार रहती है.

Raviwar Vrat Katha


According to Hindu Shashtra and belief all weekdays have distinct significance. The weekdays are named as Somvar (Monday), Mangalvar (Tuesday), Budhvar (Wednesday), Vrihaspativar (Thursday), Shukravar (Friday), Shanivar (Saturday), Ravivar (Sunday). Each weekday is associated with a specific god and ruled by a specific planet. The days also have various color significance and fasting are observed on those days for special purpose. It is believed that different gods fulfill different desires. One is afflicted by the rage of the gods if they do not show proper respect to the god. There are many ancient stories and legends depicting the glory of various gods or planets as well as the advantage of keeping the fasts on specific days. The stories also narrate the adversities one has to face if they ignore any God or Planet specific for a day.

Ravi Vrat Katha Vidhi


Nama Suryaya Santaya Sarvaroga Nivarine
Ayu rarogya maisvairyam dehi devah jagatpate
– Valmiki Ramayana
Oh! Lord Surya, ruler of the universe, you are the remover of all diseases, the repository of peace I bow to you. May you bless your devotees with longevity, health and wealth.
Surya is the only visible God whom we can see, perceive and pray. The Sun God is considered as the life-giver, ”Prannadata” of the entire universe. Surya is essential for life. All Vedas regard Surya as the witness (Saakshi) of all actions. The Sun or Surya is also known as ”Atmakaraka”. Being a Sanskrit word, ”Atma” means ”soul” and ”Karaka” means ”indicator”. The Sun is the ”indicator of the soul”. The Surya is the indicator of our ego, honor, status, fame, the heart, the eyes, general vitality, respect and power.


Surya Puja – Worshipping the Sun God

Surya Puja is a divine boon for those who face problems, hurdles and misfortune in their lives. Worship of Sun is beneficial when people get stuck, no matter how hard working, honest and intelligent they are good luck seems to ignore them. People who aspire for sound health, prosperity, good eyesight, strength and courage, success, cure of chronic diseases like leprosy, heart ailment, nervous weakness, asthma etc. should worship the Sun. This planet is known for his Power, strength and glory.

An ill-placed Sun could also lead to difficulties in health, relating to heart or blood pressure/ blood circulation. In such a case, it is advisable to recite Surya Japa or Dhyan Mantra. After planning to perform the Surya Puja, one should wear clean red clothes on Sunday and offer lotus flower to the God, facing the east direction.

People keep fast on Sundays in the name of Surya Narain or the Sun God. They take food only once a day, generally fruit, before sun-set. Saltish and fried items are avoided. It is believed that a fast on a Sunday saves one from skin diseases like leprosy, ringworm, and eye sores. Sun God is worshipped with red sandalwood and red flowers.

This story…

The Markandeya Purana describes the birth of Sun God. The beautiful Aditi was born as daughter of Daksha. Kasyapa beget on her the divine Sun. He is identical with Trinity. Surya was married to ‘Saugna Devi’, the daughter of ‘Viswakarma’, the divine architect. She bore Surya three “children -‘Vaivaswata Manu, Yama and Yamuna’. It came to pass that she could no longer bear the brilliance of her husband’s presence. She fled leaving behind ‘Chaya’, her shadow for years, Surya did not notice this change. ‘Chaya’ bore him three children ‘Savarni Manu Sani and Tapati’.

One day in a fit of anger, ‘Chaya’ cursed ‘Yama’, the son of ‘Saugna’. The curse took effect and Surya was stunned. He knew that no mother’s curse could ever effect her offspring. He questioned ‘Chaya’ who blurted out the truth. He searched for his beloved every-where. At last he spotted her frolicking in the forest in the form of a mare. In order to win her back he changes himself into a horse a horse approached her gently and befriended her. In this form she bore Surya twins called ‘Aswini-Kumaras’. Who later became celestial physician and surgeons. Surya and Saugna turned back into their original forms. In order to keep her by his side, Surya allowed his father-in-law to put him lathe and to share away an eighth of his brightness.

Thereafter, the couple lived together in great bliss. The brightness shorn out of the Sun God was put to good use. Out of it were produced ‘Sudarsana Chakra’ for Lord Vishnu, Trisul for Siva, the lance to Kartikeya’, ‘Vajrayudha’ for Devendra, sword and arrows for Goddess Durga and so on. There is another story in ‘Sarva Puranasara’, Once the Lord of Heaven visited Siva-Parvati on Mahasivarathri day. After darshan he revealed to Siva that he desired to install a replica of Eswara at a holy place where Siva ordered-Shiva told him that instead of the said proposal, it would be more appropriate to install Surya at Arasavalli, because He represents Trinity. Further Shiva accorded a boon that he would be attends there as Kshetra Palaka. Indra was so pleased with folded hands. Then and there he ordered Viswakarma to construct a huge and beautiful temple for Surya.

The Vedas declare, that the colours embeded in the Sun rays cure all diseases.

These Seven rays, viz. 1. Red 2. Orange 3. Yellow 4. Green 5. Blue 6. Indigo 7. Violet, are the seven horses of Surya. We also see the same colours in the Rainbow.

The system of curing the diseases with the different colours of cosmic rays and its benefits are detailed.

This system of “Chromopathy” is the method of systematic application of the Seven colours present in Sun.
In this the health advantages and its procedures are stated. By this treatment certain specific diseases and other common ailments are cured.
This means that leucoderma, heart diseases when attacked exposure to the red rays of Sun health will be resorted.
In this treatment the application of blue colour cures fever, dysentry, diabetics, blood motions. Bronchitis, head ache, urinary disorders, small pox, filarial Elephantasis.
In the line of colours the last one orange, the ultra violet ray are hiddenly secure in its rays. When these rays radiate on our body the ‘D’ Vitamin in the middle of the Skin will be produced.
This ‘D’ Vitamin manufacture the substances ‘Calcium’ and phosphorous essential for our body. Due to these substances teeth get improved and help the actions of the body perfectly.
Due to chromopathy hernia will be cured. The medicine used for cure is kept in coloured bottles and allow the Sun ray pass through there and made a mixture from two to three bottles each time and used each time for three months. Improvement is found. Every disease through the red colour, the yellow the stomach diseases, the green colour heart and all skin diseases are cured. In the Sun’s ray all the colours of red and white are secretly penetrated.
In our body we have different colours in different organs separately. The skin has wheatish colour, hair black, eye balls and teeth whitel the other organs too has different colours in the body. The essence of this cosmic colour therapy is that the deficiency of colour and the reduction of them cause ill health.
The blue colour gives good health and the red colour enthusiasm and energy.
Depending upon the types of disease pure water is filled in the different coloured bottles, and the Sun rays are being attracted through the bottles into the water, and given to the diseased for few days and there by the colours in their body is recouped and health is restored.
The oil and water can be prepared from the cosmic rays during the convenient time from (April, May and June) Caitra to Jesta months. During this period the Sun rays are profusely available.

Medicated Oil Preparation with Sun Rays

To cure the diseases of head, pour gingelly oil, or Badam ol, two inches below the neck of a bottle, tie with the cork or cotton and keep it in Sun shine. When cotton is plugged, every day the cotton has to be replaced. The oil will be ready in Ninety days. After the oil is prepared perfume can be added but not colours.

Medicated Water Preparation with Sun Rays

Depending upon the type of disease, in different coloured bottles, water has to be filled two inches less to the full capacity of the container, and the same coloured cork has to be fitted to the bottle. The oil or water has to be kept on a wooden plank and not on the ground and expose it in full shine from 10 ‘O’ clock in the morning to 5 ‘O’ clock in the evening. In the mean while no shadow should befall on it. If by any mistake it is allowed to stay after the setting of Sun, and the ray of moon, or Stars falls on them the water will be spoiled. Then the bottles must be emptied. It has to be cleansed, fresh water is filled up and again prepared.

When different coloured bottles are kept in the same cabin or when they are exposed to Sun rays simultaneously, a separate coloured papers matching their own colour is daily wrapped and separately kept up with out touching each other and one’s own shade of the bottle will not fall on the other.

The water prepared in one bottle can not be kept more than three days. Immediately it has to be transferred to a white bottle. It is useful only for three days and again it has to be prepared separately. The water prepared though the Sun rays in a white bottle is very beneficial. This water can be used two times during a day.

This story of the Sun God, is related on the occasion of Sunday fast.

It depicts the importance of cow and cow dung and suggests the victory of innocence over jealousy. Once there was an old lady. She would get up early in the morning and took her bath. She kept her house dean by plastering it with cow dung, and took her meals only after offering food to the Sun God. She lived a happy life.

This lady used to collect cow dung from her neighbours house. The neighbours wife was jealous of her. She tethered her cow inside the room so that the old lady could not collect the dung. And as she could not plaster her house with cow-dung, she did not cook her food. She did not even offer food to the idols. She remained on fast throughout the day and slept with empty stomach.

The Sun God appeared before her in her dream. He sold, Why did not you take your meals? Why did you not offer food to the Idols? The old lady said politely, My neighbours lady did not allow me to collect cow-dung from her house. I could not clean my house. I have no cow of my own. The Sun God said, I am happy with you because you kept fast on Sunday. I am pleased with your worship. I shall give you a beautiful The god disappeared. The old lady opened her eyes. A beautiful much cow with a calf was there in her courtyard. She was surprised to see them. She arranged hay and water for them.

When the neighbours lady saw the cow in the old ladys house, she became jealous of her. She also noticed that the cows dung was of gold and not an ordinary dung. She took the gold dung and replaced it with the ordinary dung of her cow. She continued the replacing practice for a number of days. The Sun God noted that the old lady was being cheated by her neighbour. He caused a storm at sun-set. The old lady tethered her cow inside her room for its safety. She was, however, surprised to see that her cow gave her gold dung instead of an ordinary one. She could see through her neighbours trick.

The neighbours lady was constantly jealous. She thought of a plan to deprive her of the wonder cow. She went to the king and said, My Lord, a poor old lady in our neighbourhood has a divine cow. The cow gives gold dung. It would be befitting for your graciousness if this cow Is with you. She keeps it inside her room. No one can have even its glimpse. The king was a greedy person. He told his courtier, Go immediately and bring the cow.

The old lady was about to offer food to the Sun Gods idol when the courtier reached her house. He untied the rope from peg and took away the cow. The lady prayed and wept, but all in vain. The old lady missed her meals that day. She prayed to her God for the safe return of the cow. She could not sleep at night. The king on the other hand, was highly pleased to have that divine cow. That night, he had a dream. The Sun God was there who said, I offered this cow to the old lady as a token of my affection for her worship of me. You do not deserve this cow.

The king woke up. He was badly shaken. He saw that the entire palace was full of cow dung. There was bad smell all around. In the morning, the king sent for the old lady with due honour. He returned the cow to the old lady and also gave her some wealth. The neighbours lady was suitably punished which was a cause of relief to all. The king proclaimed order that all his subjects should observe fast on Sundays if they wanted their desires to be fulfilled. Now, all his people were prosperous. Illness never visited them. They never faced any natural calamity. Everyone enjoyed happiness.


“Aum Hrim Hrim Suriyaye Namah Aum”
Ravi Vrat Katha Vidhi(process):


::- On the day of Vrat, Wake up before Sun rise.
::- Take a shower and wear a New and Neat cloth.
::- Take your meal and Fruit, only while Sun is in the sky.
::- If you have taken Fast, and if Sun does not come in the sky, do not take any Meal or Fruit and take that next day when Sun comes up in the sky.

::- Do not take Salt and Oily food in your meal.

Benefit from this Vrat:

::- You can get Respect and Honour in the Family and Society.
::- You can get victory from your Enemies and Rivals.
::- If you have Eye problem, you can get cure.

Monday Vrat Katha

 Monday is usually dedicated to Lord Shiva. Upvass, or fasting, on Mondays begins at sunrise and ends at sunset. On the day, food is only eaten after evening prayer. Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati are worshipped on the day. Of course, no worship begins without remembering Lord Ganesha. The fasting on Mondays in the Shravan month is considered even more auspicious.

It is believed that those people who observe Upvaas on Monday will have their desires fulfilled and will be blessed with wisdom. In some areas, fasting on Mondays is observed by unmarried women to get an ideal husband.The reason for fasting on a day is usually traced back to a particular incident in one of the Hindu Puranas or folk tradition. There are numerous myths associated with a particular fast. The stories vary from region to region and from community to community.

Somvar Vrat, or Monday fasting, dedicated to Lord Shiva too has numerous stories. Among the several myths, three have gained popularity – the first is the story of a poor Brahmin gaining wealth due to Monday fasting, second is the story of a rich merchant begetting a son after long wait and the subsequent death of the son and his rebirth due to the grace of Lord Shiva and Parvati and the third story is the most famous involving the game of dice played between Shiva and Parvati.

Vrat (Fast) Katha
Once there lived a wealthy merchant in a city. He always had immense wealth and prosperity. But despite all the worldly possessions, he remained sad because he had no son. He regularly observed Monday fast to have a son. He used to go to the Shiva temple and worshipped there Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati with full faith. Goddess Parvati was pleased at his devotion. She implored Lord Shiva and said, My Lord, this wealthy merchant is your faithful devotee. He regularly observes Monday fast but still he has no son. Please fulfill his desire. Hearing the imploring of Parvati, Lord Shiva said, Let your desire be fulfilled. I grant him a boon. He will be the father of a son, but he will live for twelve years only”. Fortunately, this wealthy merchant could hear their conversation.

As time passed on, the merchant’s wife gave birth to a beautiful son. He celebrated his son’s birth with great pomp and show and distributed food, clothes and money among the poor. All prayed for his sons’ long and happy life. But the merchant was still sad because he knew that his son would not live beyond twelve years. Yama, the god of Death, spares none.

Knowing what the situation was, the merchant started observing the Monday fast with greater zest and there was no let up in the worship of Lord Shiva. He practiced all the rites of worship.

At the age of eleven, the merchants’ son looked quite smart and mature. All desired that he should be married to a beautiful girl. The merchants’ wife also wanted her sons’ marriage. She insisted for it again and again. The merchant did not agree to this proposal. He sent for his brother-In-law and said, Accompany my son to Kashi. Arrange for his best spiritual knowledge. Take enough money from my treasure. Arrange devotional gatherings on your way to Kashi at every halt and distribute alms among the beggars.

The merchant’s son started his journey for Kashi with his maternal uncle. They arranged devotional gatherings and distributed clothes at every halting camp. They also arranged best eats for the Brahmans and made enough offerings to them.

One day they made a halt at a capital of a king. The kings’ daughters’ marriage was to take place that day. The marriage party had already reached the city. The bridegroom’s party was terribly disturbed because the bridegroom was blind, of one eye. They were in search of a beautiful boy to replace him. The bridegroom’s father sent his men in search of a beautiful boy. The men spotted the merchants son who was camping in an inn with his maternal uncle. The bridegroom’s father was a rich person. He said to the merchant’s maternal uncle, my prestige is at stake. I need a handsome bridegroom in place of my one-eyed son. I shall give enough wealth if your ward agrees to have a temporary marriage with the kings’ daughter. He shall be free immediately after the marriage ceremony is over. The merchants’ brother-in-law convinced his sisters’ son for a temporary marriage. The brides’ party praised their luck when they saw a handsome bridegroom with the marching band at the head of the marriage procession.

The merchant’s son and the kings daughter were married around the holy fire. At the time of departure, the merchants’ son picked his brides scarf and wrote; now we are husband and wife. I am not the son of a king. I am the son of a rich merchant. I was on way to Kashi for spiritual studies. Your real bridegroom is blind of one eye.

The bride noticed her bridegroom writing something on the scarf. She could not read his message at that time. When the marriage party was about to depart, the bride read the message. She was shocked to know the reality. She refused to accompany with the one-eyed bridegroom. The marriage party returned without a bride.

The merchants’ son reached Kashi and devoted himself fully to the spiritual studies. His maternal uncle arranged devotional gatherings and gave donations everyday for the well-being of his sisters’ son. On the last day of the twelfth year, the merchants’ son felt pain in the chest. His maternal uncle was performing the religious rites as per his routine. As he went inside the room, he found the boy dead. He was full of grief, but kept silent as the Brahmans would not accept food from such a house. With courage, he completed his routine. When his routine was over, he started crying. Many people gathered around him and shared his grief.

Fortunately, Lord Shiva and Parvati were also passing by that house. When Parvati heard the cries and beating of breast, her motherly compassion got aroused. She was a mother, after all. Having known the facts, she said to Lord Shiva, My dear Sire, please ask Yama to return his life. Yama is always at your command. Please do this favour to me. You are the protector of all creatures.

Lord Shiva agreed and sprinkled Ganga water on the dead body. The boy got up as if he was making an excuse for sleep. The spiritual education of the merchants’ son was over. They started their journey homeward. They arranged spiritual discourses and distributed aims among the needy throughout their way.

Now, they were back in the city where this boy was married. The king recognized the boy immediately. He took him to his palace with full honour and on an auspicious day, he arranged to happy departure for his daughter. He also gave adequate dowry. The merchants son reached his city along with his bride.

His father could not believe it. He was sitting on the roof of a big mansion with his wife, waiting for his son. They had decided that they would not come down until their son supported them himself; otherwise they would commit suicide by jumping down the roof. So the merchant’s son along with his bride went up to the roof. They touched their feet. The merchant and his wife were very happy to see the couple.

Sixteen Weeks Monday Fast
Once Lord Shiva visited the famous city of Amravati . Parvati also accompanied him. On their way, they saw a beautiful Shiva temple and decided to spend some time there. One day, Parvati found Lord Shiva in a playful mood. She said to him, Oh my Lord, let us have a dice game. Lord Shiva obliged her and the game started. Meanwhile, the priest of the temple had come there. Parvati turned towards him and said Please foretell who will win this game? The Brahman gave no serious thought to her question and abruptly said, Lord Shiva will win the game. Incidentally Parvati won the game. She was angry because the Brahman had told a lie. Lord Shiva tried to pacify her, but she cursed the Brahman that he be a leper. In due course, the Brahman became a leper and spent a miserable life.
After some time a few fairies descended on the earth and pitied the fate of the priest. On asking him, the priest narrated the whole episode. One of the fairies said, You observe Monday fasts for sixteen weeks without break. On the seventeenth Monday, prepare some holy food or Prasaad with flour mixed with ghee and gur. Distribute this prasaad among the members of your family and take some yourself. You will be free from this leprosy. The fairies disappeared and the priest followed the instructions. Soon, he regained his normal health.

Once Lord Shiva and Parvati again visited that temple. Parvati was surprised to see the priest. He was his normal self. She enquired about this feat and the priest narrated the whole story. Parvati was happy; she also decided to observe Monday fasts for sixteen weeks. Incidentally, on the seventeenth Monday, when she broke her fast, her beloved son Kartikeya, who was displeased with her, appeared and said, 0 dear mother what is that power with which you have called me? What is the mystery? Parvati said, 0 my dear son, all this miracle is due to observing Monday fasts for sixteen weeks without interruption. Kartikeyas Brahman friend had been in a foreign land for quite some time. Kartikeya said, I shall observe Monday fasts for sixteen weeks for happy reunion with my friend. He observed the 16 weeks fasts as per rules and to his great surprise his friend returned hale and hearty. The friend enquired about the miracle and Kartikeya told him the modalities to be observed for Monday fast. The Brahman friend was very curious about his marriage. He decided to observe the Monday fasts for sixteen weeks.

On the seventeenth Monday, the Brahman friend went to a city. The ruler of the city decided to marry his daughter to a person on whose neck his well-decorated elephant would put the garland. The Brahman joined the show. Incidentally, the elephant garlanded him. The ruler of the city gave him his daughter and also a lot of money. The couple departed the next day and were back in their home. On the honeymoon night, the bride said, 0 my dear, how is it that the elephant ignored all the princes and garlanded you? How did you succeed on the auspicious moments? The bridegroom said, I observed fasts on sixteen Mondays. Monday is Lord Shivas day. It is due to his blessings that I got a beautiful wife like you. My friend Kartikeya revealed this secret to me. The bride too decided to observe fasts on sixteen Mondays for a beautiful son full of knowledge. Her devotion bore fruit and she gave birth to a beautiful son. As the son grew up, he said to his mother, 0 my dear mother, what is the mystery behind my birth? Please reveal it to me. The mother told him how she observed Monday fasts. The son also decided to observe the fasts to gain a kingdom for his parents. Incidentally, an old kings messengers from a nearby State came there in search of a beautiful and learned bridegroom for the princess. They proposed the princess hand for him and he readily agreed.

The king expired after sometime and the boy became the king. The newly-made king continued his fasts for the next sixteen Mondays. On the seventeenth Monday, he arranged a large prayer party at a temple. All the arrangements were made well in advance. The king requested the queen to accompany him to the temple for breaking the fast after taking prasaad from the priest. The queen refused to go with him. The king had to go alone. The king heard an oracle who echoed, 0 king, turn out the queen from the palace or destruction will fall upon you. The king returned to his palace. He summoned a conference of his ministers and told about the oracle. All of them were taken aback, as it was due to that princess that he became the king of the state. They agreed to his proposal only with a heavy heart. The queen was ultimately turned out. The queen left the palace bare footed and in worn-out clothes. She was thirsty and fatigued. She met an old lady who had a load of spinned spindles on her head. She was going to the city. She felt pity on her and asked to help her in selling the yarn because she did not know the art of selling. The queen took that load on her head. Incidentally, strong wind blew away the spindles which disappeared in the dusty wind. The queen felt sorry and the old lady asked her to go away. The queen went to an oilmans house and sought shelter. The oilman obliged her, but as she stepped in, all of his oil pots developed cracks and the oil began to flow on the ground. The oilman immediately turned her out. The queen was now disheartened. She went to the bank of a river to quench her thirst. As she touched the water, the water dried up. She then went to a deep jungle and saw a tank of water. As she went down the stairs and touched the crystal dear water, it became muddy. She cursed her fate and put a few drops of the muddy water in her mouth. She was now tired and wanted to take rest under a shady tree. As she went near the tree its leaves began to fall and soon it became leafless. The cowherds saw this incident and told the whole story to the priest of a nearby temple. The priest called for the woman. He was surprised to see that the woman had royal features. He consoled her and provided her with all the facilities. But after some days, he also got fed up with her because whatever the woman touched became impure — may it be milk, food or water. One day, the priest said, 0 lady, what curse has fallen upon you? You reveal the mystery.

The woman told him how she rejected a proposal to attend Monday fast prayer. The priest understood the whole thing. He knew it was Shivas curse. He said, 0 dear lady, you observe fasts on sixteen Mondays and Lord Shiva will absolve you of your sins. The woman realised her mistake and observed the Monday fasts for sixteen Mondays. On the seventeenth Monday, the king said to himself, My queen left my palace long ago. Her condition must be very miserable. He called for his courtiers and ordered them to search out the queen. The courtiers reached the temple where the queen was residing. The priest refused to hand over the queen to them and said, Let the king himself come to receive her. The courtiers went to the king and related the whole story.

The king was happy to hear the news. He went to the temple and requested the priest to return his queen to him. The king admitted that he deserted the queen to avoid Lord Shivas wrath. The priest trusted the kings words and the queen returned to the palace. She was given a royal welcome. The king distributed money among the needy and arranged food for the hungry. The king and queen now regularly observed fasts on sixteen Mondays each year and lived a very happy life. After their death they found abode in Lord Shivas city, Shivapuri. Since, then it is believed that a person who observes fasts on sixteen Mondays, gets all pleasures and enters Shivapuri after his death.

Somaya Pradosh Vrat Katha
Pradosh means the dusk of the early night or evening tide. This fast is observed in the evening twilight, and so it is called Pradosh Vrat. It is observed on the 13th day of each lunar fortnight.
The puja and worship is done in the evening. The Pradosha period can be loosely indicated as 1.5 hours before sunset and 1 hour after sunset.

The Shiva Purana states that one undertakes fasting on Pradhosha will be blessed with wealth, children, happiness and honor. The fasting and worship is specially undertaken by women who long to have children. It is said that those praying to Shiva during the auspicious time of Pradhosha will be freed from sins.

There are numerous legends associated with the Pradhosha Vratam. It is believed that Lord Shiva drank the Halahala poison that was churned up from the Ocean of Milk (Samudra Manthan) during Pradosham.
Another myth indicates that Lord Shiva and Parvati, the divine couple, are in a propitious mood during the evening twilight on the Trayodashi day and hence are easily pleased and grants whatever that a sincere devotee asks.

Offering Bael or Bilva leaves during the period to Lord Shiva is considered auspicious. There are Shiva devotees that observe fast on both Pradosha days in a month. Some only fast during the waning phase of moon. Staunch devotees opt for water only fasting and will only eat the ‘prasad’ offered in the evening. Such devotees only eat cooked from next day morning.

Another method of fasting is by eating fruits and such devotees eat cooked food on the day after the evening prayers. The strictness of the Pradosha fasting is usually decided by the devotee.

Some devotees do not fast but worship Shiva during the period or visit temples.

Since Monday is dedicated to Shiva, the Pradosha falling on Monday is referred as Soma- Pradosha and is considered highly auspicious. Pradosha falling on Saturday during the waning phase of moon is also auspicious.

Once upon a time, there was one widow living with her son. She lefts home daily with her son to gather food for her son and herself.

At the same time that religious woman was keeping Somwar Pradosh (means the dusk of the early night or evening tide) Vrat(fast) for her son and herself to be better off and happy. This fast is observed in the evening twilight, and so it is called Pradosh Vrat. It is observed on the 13th day of each lunar fortnight. It is practiced to propitiate Lord Shiva, in order to obtain his blessings and boons leading to fulfillment of one’s cherished desired and spiritual upliftment. Those who practice it with unflinching faith and devotion are bound to possess wealth, health, happiness.

One day she found one young man who running from his enemy. She gave shelter to that man. She bring her at home and find out that he was Rajkumar(prince) of ex-king.

One day she allowed her son and Prince to go out in the city to collect the food. In the evening only her son comeback home without Prince. Worried Brahmin woman asked about prince. Her son said he is with Gandharwa Kanya (Lady).On other side the father of Gandharwa Kanya found that his daughter is in love with unknown young man. He send his army to find out the reality of that young man. After investigation he has find out that he is actually a son of the King.

Soon after he arranged marriage with his daughter. After some days with the help of his father-in-law’s army he defeated the enemy and became king. He also appoint the bramin woman’s son, the main Mantri (Diplomate adviser) of his kingdom.This is all happened because of that Brahmin woman’s Somwar Pradosh Vrat.

Shravan (Sawan) Somvar Vrat
The month of Shravan, popularly known as Sawan, is the fifth month of the Hindu calender. Shravan is considered the holiest month of the year. Each Monday of this month, known as Shravan Somvar, is a special day in Shiva temples where the dharanatra hangs over the linga or the idol to bathe it with holy water, day and night. Devotees pile the linga high with Bel leaves and flowers and fast till sunset.
It is considered highly auspicious to wear a rudraksha in Shravan month. As, Mondays or Somvars of Shravan month are specially observed with austerity. All Mondays are devoted to the worship of Shiva as this day is sacred to Lord Shiva. No other Mondays of other months are so greatly honored.
The belief is that in Shravan month, offering milk to Lord Shiva earns a lot of punya.

सावन के सोमवार-व्रत की कथा और पूजन विधि – Solah Somvar Vrat Katha

सावन का पूरा महीना यूं तो भगवान शिव को अर्पित होता ही है पर सावन के पहले सोमवार को भगवान शिव की पूजा करने से विशेष फल मिलता है. भारत के सभी द्वादश शिवलिंगों पर इस दिन विशेष पूजा-अर्चना की जाती है. आदिकाल से ही इस दिन का विशेष महत्व रहा है. कहा जाता है सावन के सोमवार का व्रत करने से मनचाहा जीवनसाथी मिलता है और दूध की धार के साथ भगवान शिव से जो मांगो वह वर मिल जाता है.

shiv parivarसावन के सोमवार की महिमा अपार है और इसीलिए हम आपके लिए सोमवार के व्रत की कथा और उसके पूजन की विधि को लेकर आएं हैं.

पिछले कुछ ब्लॉगों में हमने आपको कई अहम चालिसाओं, आरतियों और अन्य धार्मिक चीजों से रूबरू करवाया और अब हमारा प्रयास है कि हम उन सभी लोगों की मदद करें जो व्रत रखते हैं.

आइए जानें सावन के सोमवार के व्रत की कथा

एक कथा के अनुसार जब सनत कुमारों ने महादेव से उन्हें सावन महीना प्रिय होने का कारण पूछा तो महादेव भगवान शिव ने बताया कि जब देवी सती ने अपने पिता दक्ष के घर में योगशक्ति से शरीर त्याग किया था, उससे पहले देवी सती ने महादेव को हर जन्म में पति के रूप में पाने का प्रण किया था. अपने दूसरे जन्म में देवी सती ने पार्वती के नाम से हिमाचल और रानी मैना के घर में पुत्री के रूप में जन्म लिया. पार्वती ने सावन के महीने में निराहार रह कर कठोर व्रत किया और उन्हें प्रसन्न कर विवाह किया, जिसके बाद ही महादेव के लिए यह विशेष हो गया. यही कारण है कि सावन के महीने में सुयोग्य वर की प्राप्ति के लिए कुंवारी लड़कियों व्रत रखती हैं.

shivlingसोमवार व्रत विधि

सोमवार व्रत में भगवान भगवान शंकर के साथ माता पार्वती और श्री गणेश की भी पूजा की जाती है. व्रती यथाशक्ति पंचोपचार या षोडशोपचार विधि-विधान और पूजन सामग्री से पूजा कर सकता है. व्रत स्त्री-पुरुष दोनों कर सकते हैं. शास्त्रों के मुताबिक सोमवार व्रत की अवधि सूर्योदय से लेकर सूर्यास्त तक है. सोमवार व्रत में उपवास रखना श्रेष्ठ माना जाता है, किंतु उपवास न करने की स्थिति में व्रती के लिए सूर्यास्त के बाद शिव पूजा के बाद एक बार भोजन करने का विधान है. सोमवार व्रत एक भुक्त और रात्रि भोजन के कारण नक्तव्रत भी कहलाता है.

सावन के पहले सोमवार की पूजा विधि

प्रात: और सांयकाल स्नान के बाद शिव के साथ माता पार्वती, गणेश जी, कार्तिकेय और नंदी जी पूजा करें. चतुर्थी तिथि होने से श्री गणेश की भी विशेष पूजा करें. पूजा में मुख पूर्व दिशा या उत्तर दिशा की ओर रखें. पूजा के दौरान शिव के पंचाक्षरी मंत्र ॐ नम: शिवाय और गणेश मंत्र जैसे ॐ गं गणपतये बोलकर भी पूजा सामग्री अर्पित कर सकते हैं.

पूजा में शिव परिवार को पंचामृत यानी दूध, दही, शहद, शक्कर, घी व जलधारा से स्नान कराकर, गंध, चंदन, फूल, रोली, वस्त्र अर्पित करें. शिव को सफेद फूल, बिल्वपत्र, सफेद वस्त्र और श्री गणेश को सिंदूर, दूर्वा, गुड़ व पीले वस्त्र चढ़ाएं. भांग-धतूरा भी शिव पूजा में चढ़ाएं. शिव को सफेद रंगे के पकवानों और गणेश को मोदक यानी लड्डूओं का भोग लगाएं.

भगवान शिव व गणेश के जिन स्त्रोतों, मंत्र और स्तुति की जानकारी हो, उसका पाठ करें. श्री गणेश व शिव की आरती सुगंधित धूप, घी के पांच बत्तियों के दीप और कर्पूर से करें. अंत में गणेश और शिव से घर-परिवार की सुख-समृद्धि की कामनाएं करें.


Budhwar Vrat Katha

 Budhvar, Wednesday, is dedicated to Lord Krishna and the planet Budh or Mercury. The day is also associated with Lord Vithal, an incarnation of Krishna . In some regions, Lord Vishnu is worshiped. Keeping a fast (Upvaas) on Budhvar is believed to help in leading a peaceful family life.

Those devotees who undertake a fast on the day only take a single meal in the afternoon. The fasting is observed mainly by husband and wife together. Green color is considered highly auspicious on the day.In Astrology, mercury is considered to be compassionate and generous. Mercury is usually depicted riding a lion.In some regions, people start new ventures on Wednesday as Mercury or Budh is considered to help new business ventures. Educational activities begin on Wednesday in some places.

Vrat katha

Planet Budh is known as planet Mercury too.Lord Budh has four hands. Sword, Thaal, Gada and Varmudra are seen in his hands. Lord Budh has golden crown on his head and wears ornaments of yellow flowers and yellow clothes. According to the Atharv Ved, Budh was born to Chandrama and Tara. Since the child was very intelligent, Lord Brahma gave the name Budh to him. According to one story of Mahabharat, King Manu got married his daughter Ila to Budh Dev. King Pururva was son of Ila and Budh. According to Sreemad Bhagwat, the place of Budh Grah is higher by 2 lakh Yojan than Shukra Grah. Normally, Budh Grah is associated with good things. But when it crosses the way of Surya Grah, there is a possibility for Strong Wind (Cyclone), Flood and Drought. According to Matsyapuran, Budh Grah is yellow in colour, The Rath is white in colour and is glowing with bright light, drove by ten speedy horses. Budh Grah is the Lord of Mithun and Kanya rashi.
Budh Pooja is recommended to reduce the tribulations caused due to malefic position of MERCURY in the horoscope.

Budh Puja is to appease the planet Mercury. Budh Puja is very useful & beneficial puja, since it’s worship strengthens benefic Mervury & increases its positive influence and pacifies malefic effects of the planet & neutralizes its negative effect. Budh Puja is recommended for those having malefic Budh or wrong placed Bhudh as per horoscope.

The planets are to propitiated against their evil influences, to ward off them, the Budh Puja is done with faith to ward off all evils of Budh as per the horoscope.

Once there was a newly wed. On a Sunday, he went to his father-in-laws house to take his wife with him. It was the first time after marriage. He was welcomed by the in-laws and was provided with best food and bedding. His wife’s friends cut jokes with him. He enjoyed their jokes and conversation. He forgot the outside world as he enjoyed the hospitality offered to him by his wife’s younger brothers and sisters.

Monday and Tuesday were spent in other pastimes. It was now Wednesday. He told his mother-in-law, I have an urgent piece of work today. You send your daughter with me immediately. But today is Wednesday. Mercury is not favorable to girls on Wednesday. It is considered inauspicious sending daughters in their in-laws house. I shall not send my daughter today, said the mother-in-law.

I do not care for the Mercury. He cannot harm me. Wednesday is very favorable for the businessmen like me. I have also very urgent piece of work at home, said the son-in-law. The mother-in-law said. You came here on Sunday. Monday was your hospitality day. The guest should enjoy only one day’s hospitality. You have over-stayed. This is not our fault. How could we ask you to go away on Tuesday? It was for you to decide. Now, please go tomorrow for heaven sake.

The son-in-law was adamant. He insisted on leaving the same day. The in-laws read his mood and agreed to send their daughter with him. They arranged a chariot for the couple. Soon, the couple reached near a township. The girl was thirsty. She said to her husband, I am very thirsty. Please arrange some water for me. The husband agreed and went towards the township. Another young man resembling her husband brought water for her. She could not distinguish between the two. She took him for her husband and had a good chat with him.

In the meanwhile, her real husband appeared on the scene. He was surprised to see his wife chatting and cutting jokes with someone else. He was annoyed at her conduct. The wife also felt bemused when she saw the like of her husband standing with a water pot in his hand. Both the males quarreled among themselves and claimed the lady as their wife. Incidentally a constable came there and wanted to know what the matter was. He said to the lady, who is your real husband?

The lady said, I am in a fix myself. They resemble each other so much. The real husband felt sorry. He remembered his mother-in-laws words. The constable took them to the king and told the whole story. The king asked his minister to administer justice. The minister said to the constable, it is late evening. Lock them up in separate cells. Arrange strict night watch. I will give my judgment tomorrow.

All the three were locked up in separate cells. It was dead of night. Mercury had a Sound sleep. The real husband was very restless. He was repentant. He uttered loudly; I am suffering for my pride and disobedience to my in-laws. Oh God, forgive me this time. The guards were marking all these uttering. The next morning the minister sent for the guards. The guards related one of the youngmen’s behaviors.

The minister said, the man who had a restless night is the real husband. His wife should be restored to him. He should be freed. Produce the second person in my court. The guards went to the prison cell. They set free the real husband and his wife. They were happy to be together again. The guards went to the other young man. His cell was empty though locked from outside. They reported the matter to the minister. He was astonished to know that the cell was empty though locked from outside. He went to the senior minister and related the whole story.

The senior minister smiled and said the missing prisoner is Mercury. Mercury rules on Wednesdays. This man challenged Mercury’s authority. He felt offended and disguised himself as her husband to teach him a lesson. Today Is Thursday. Jupiter rules on Thursdays. Mercury disappeared exactly at sunrise. Don’t be afraid. The guards are not at fault.

The king was happy over his minister’s judgment. The husband and wife reached home and related the whole story to their near and dear ones.

Benefit from Vrat:

If you are suffering by Skin desease or if you stutter or if you have trouble with langaugae or pronounciation, this is the best Vrat(fats).

Hindu devotees who fast on Wednesdays take a single meal in the afternoon. The ritual fast, i.e., ‘vrat’ or ‘upvaas,’ is observed by couples – the husband and the wife together. ‘Budhvar Upvaas’ or Wednesday Fastis believed to be auspicious for leading a peaceful family life. People start new business or enterprise on Wednesdays as the planet Mercury or Budh is believed to augment new projects. This day is also lucky for students and they pray for success in education.

Budhwar Vrat Katha

Budhwar (Wednesday) Vrat Katha (Story) : बुधवार व्रत कथा

Budhwar or Wednesday is the day to worship lord Krishna, also known as Yugal Kishore and Planet Mercury. Budhwar is the day of Lord Budha (Budhan) or Planet Mercury – one of the Navagrahas or nine planets in Hindu astrology.

बुद्धवार व्रत विधि

ग्रह शांति तथा सर्व-सुखों की इच्छा रखने वालों को बुद्धवार का व्रत करना चाहिये. इस व्रत में दिन-रात में एक ही बार भोजन करना चाहिए. इस व्रत के समय हरी वस्तुओं का उपयोग करना श्रेष्ठतम है. इस व्रत के अंत में शंकर जी की पूजा, धूप, बेल-पत्र आदि से करनी चाहिए .  साथ ही बुद्धवार की कथा सुनकर आरती के बाद प्रसाद लेकर जाना चाहिये. इस व्रत का प्रारंभ शुक्ल पक्ष के प्रथम बुद्धवार से करें. 21 व्रत रखें. बुद्धवार के व्रत से बुध ग्रह की शांति तथा धन, विद्या और व्यापार में वृद्धि होती है.

215px-Budh°planetबुद्धवार व्रत कथा – Budhwar Vrat Katha

एक समय एक व्यक्ति अपनी पत्नी को विदा करवाने के लिये अपनी ससुराल गया. वहां पर कुछ दिन रहने के पश्चात् सास-ससुर से विदा करने के लिये कहा. किन्तु सबने कहा कि आज बुद्धवार का दिन है आज के दिन गमन नहीं करते हैं. वह व्यक्ति किसी प्रकार न माना और हठधर्मी करके बुद्धवार के दिन ही पत्नी को विदा कराकर अपने नगर को चल पड़ा. राह में उसकी पत्नी को प्यास लगी तो उसने अपने पति से कहा कि मुझे बहुत जोर से प्यास लगी है. तब वह व्यक्ति लोटा लेकर रथ से उतरकर जल लेने चला गया. जैसे ही वह व्यक्ति पानी लेकर अपनी पत्नी के निकट आया तो वह यह देखकर आश्चर्य से चकित रह गया कि ठीक अपनी ही जैसी सूरत तथा वैसी ही वेश-भूषा में वह व्यक्ति उसकी पत्नी के साथ रथ में बैठा हुआ है.

उसने क्रोध से कहा कि तू कौन है जो मेरी पत्नी के निकट बैठा हुआ है.  दूसरा व्यक्ति बोला कि यह मेरी पत्नी है. इसे मैं अभी-अभी ससुराल से विदा कराकर ला रहा हूं. वे दोनों व्यक्ति परस्पर झगड़ने लगे. तभी राज्य के सिपाही आकर लोटे वाले व्यक्ति को पकड़ने लगे. स्त्री से पूछा, तुम्हारा असली पति कौन सा है.  तब पत्नी शांत ही रही क्योंकि दोनों एक जैसे थे.

वह किसे अपना असली पति कहे. वह व्यक्ति ईश्वर से प्रार्थना करता हुआ बोला – हे परमेश्वर, यह क्या लीला है कि सच्चा झूठा बन रहा है. तभी आकाशवाणी हुई कि मूर्ख आज बुद्धवार के दिन तुझे गमन नहीं करना था. तूने किसी की बात नहीं मानी.  यह सब लीला बुद्धदेव भगवान की है. उस व्यक्ति ने तब बुद्धदेव जी से प्रार्थना की और अपनी गलती के लिये क्षमा मांगी. तब बुद्धदेव जी अन्तर्ध्यान हो गए. वह अपनी स्त्री को लेकर घर आया तथा बुद्धवार का व्रत वे दोनों पति-पत्नी नियमपूर्वक करने लगे.  जो व्यक्ति इस कथा को श्रवण करता तथा सुनाता है उसको बुद्धवार के दिन यात्रा करने का कोई दोष नहीं लगता है, उसको सर्व प्रकार के सुखों की प्राप्ति होती है.

बुद्धवार व्रत की आरती

आरती युगलकिशोर की कीजै. तन मन धन न्यौछावर कीजै..

गौरश्याम मुख निरखत रीजै. हरि का स्वरुप नयन भरि पीजै..

रवि शशि कोट बदन की शोभा. ताहि निरखि मेरो मन लोभा..

ओढ़े नील पीत पट सारी. कुंजबिहारी गिरवरधारी..

फूलन की सेज फूलन की माला. रत्न सिंहासन बैठे नन्दलाला..

कंचनथार कपूर की बाती. हरि आए निर्मल भई छाती..

श्री पुरुषोत्तम गिरिवरधारी. आरती करें सकल ब्रज नारी..

नन्दनन्दन बृजभान, किशोरी.  परमानन्द स्वामी अविचल जोरी ..


Budhwar Vrat Katha, बुधवार व्रत कथा, Wednesday Weekly Fast story in Hindi text. This fast is dedicated to planet Budh or Mercury.

Why do we wear marks on the forehead?

 One of the most visible external symbols of Hindu identity is the mark that many of us wear on our forehead. This is called tilak, pottu or bindi. The dot is called ‘Kumkum’ or ‘Bindi’, and when worn by men it is called ‘Tilak’ (mark). Its form and colour vary according to one’s caste, religious sect or the form of the Lord worshipped.

In earlier times, the four castes (based on Varna or colour) – Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra – applied marks differently. The brahmin applied a white chandan mark signifying purity, as his profession was of a priestly or academic nature. The kshatriya applied a red kumkum mark signifying valour as he belonged to warrior races. The vaishya wore a yellow kesar or turmeric mark signifying prosperity as he was a businessman or trader devoted to creation of wealth. The sudra applied a black bhasma, kasturi or charcoal mark signifying service as he supported the work of the other three divisions.

Also Worshippers of Lord Vishnu wear a Chandan (sandalwood paste) Tilak of the shape of “U.” Vertical lines usually represent Vaishnava devotees. Lord Shiva worshippers apply a three horizontal line bhasma or sacred ash. Horizontal lines represent Shaiva devotees. Worshippers of Devi or the female goddess apply a red dot of kumkum. A red tika is widely applied during pujas on devotees by priests.

The wearing of a mark on the forehead is a unique feature associated with Hinduism. Basically, the wearing of Tika invokes a feeling of sacredness on the wearer and on the people with whom the wearer comes into contact. Tilak, or Tika, is also a religious symbol and they reveal the particular God worshipped by the wearer.

The tilak worn by Hindu priests have more significance. It represents the particular school of thought or Sampradaya he represents. The lines and the color used by priests vary from region to region and from sect to sect.

The area in which the mark is applied is between the eyebrows, called the “Ajna Chakra”. This is the point that most schools of Hinduism consider the entry and exit point of our jivaatma (soul). The tilak also represents our third eye (the spiritual eye) a concept closely related to Lord Shiva.

This Ajna Chakra area is often citied as the seat of thinking, concentration and memory. It is also the area which gets heated during stress and tension. Applying the tilak has a cooling effect, aids concentration and signifies our eternal link with the Supreme Being, known as the Brahman (absolute).

The tilak is applied with the prayer – “May I remember the Lord. May this pious feeling pervade all my activities. May I be righteous in my deeds.” Even when we temporarily forget this prayerful attitude the mark on another reminds us of our resolve. The tilak is thus a blessing of the Lord and a protection against wrong tendencies and forces. The entire body emanates energy in the form of electromagnetic waves – the forehead and the subtle spot between the eyebrows especially so. That is why worry generates heat and causes a headache.

It is also said that the chandan or bhasma cools the forehead and the spot between the eyebrows, which is known to generate heat during stress and tension. It is also known to prevent energy loss.

The most famous Indian mark on the forehead is the Bindu or Bindi worn by females and it has is part of makeup. The red dot applied on the top of the forehead (near the hair) is the mark of a married female.


The dot or bindi Pronounced as ‘Bin Dee’, the word bindi is derived from the Sanskrit word bindu, which means “drop”. Bindi is an auspicious ornamental mark worn by Hindu girls and women on their forehead between the two eyes . Bindi is arguably the most visually fascinating in all form of body decoration. More than a beauty spot, the manga tika (bindi) indicates good omen and purity.

Considered a symbol of Goddess Parvati, a bindi signifies female energy and is believed to protect women and their husbands. Traditionally a symbol of marriage, it has also become decorative and is worn today by unmarried girls and women as well.

No longer restricted in colour or shape, bindis are seen in many bright colours and in different shapes and designs. They are also made of coloured felt and embellished with coloured glass or glitter.

The vermilion, used to make bindis, is called ‘sindoor or ‘sindoora’ meaning red and representing Shakti or strength. Bindi also stands up for love; the red dot on the forehead gives a special charm to the lady’s face that attracts her lover. Sindoor and yellow turmeric are kept in temples and during celebrations, as a good omen. This represents intellect and is very special in temples dedicated to Hindu Gods Shakti, Lakshmi and Vishnu.

One day as Sri Jankidevi, wife of Lord Rama, was adorning the part of her hair with sindur, Hanumanji asked her, “Mata, why do you put this red thing on your head?” Smiling at Hanumanji’s curiosity, Sri Sitaji replied, “By applying this my swami [husband] lives long.” Because Hanumanji is a Parma-bhakta of Sri Ram, he thought that if a pinch of sindur could make his master’s life long, a whole lot of it would make him live longer. So he rubbed it all over his gigantic body!

Bindi can be called:
Tikli in Marathi
Pottu in Tamil and Malayalam
Tilak in Hindi
Chandlo in Gujarati
Bottu or Tilakam (in Telugu)
Bottu or Tilaka (in Kannada)
Teep (meaning “a pressing”) (in Bengali)
Nande is a term erroneously used to describe the bindi in Malaysia. It may contain pejorative connotations although not in most cases.

Bhasma, Vibhuti

Vibhuti (meaning glory) or Bhasma (that by which our sins are destroyed and the Lord is remembered) is the holy ash that Hindus apply over their forehead and body. The ash of any burnt object is not regarded as holy ash. This holy ash is created by burning cow dung along with milk, ghee, honey, etc. It is a principle sacrament in the worship of Lord Siva, representing His burning away of our ignorance to ashes.

Bhasma is generally applied on the forehead. Some apply it on certain parts of the body like the upper arms, chest etc. Some ascetics rub it all over the body. Many consume a pinch of it each time they receive it.

Literal meaning of bhasma

The Sanskrit word bhasma literally means “disintegration”. Bha means bharatsanam (to destroy), while sma implies smaran (to remember). Bhasama is thus a reminder to us of the ephemeral nature of life. Also,if we wish to unite with God ( or the ‘ supreme self’ ) and remember him constantly, our ego or ‘little self’ has first to be disintegrated or burnt to ashes. Bhasma is a symbol of this process. It is also called raksha because it protects one from all fears. When appled to the forehead before sleep, it is said to keep away evil spirits or ghosts, whether external or those which manifest fro the depths of the mind in the from of nightmares.
Bhasma symbolishes the burning of our false identification with the mortal body, and freedom from the limitations of the painfully illusive cycle of birth and death. It also reminds us of the perishable quality of the body, which will one day be reduced to mere ashes.

Homa (offering of oblations into the fire with sacred chants) signifies the offering or surrender of the ego and egocentric desires into the flame of knowledge or a noble and selfless cause. The consequent ash signifies the purity of the mind, which results from such actions.

Also the fire of knowledge burns the oblation and wood signifying ignorance and inertia respectively. The ash we apply indicates that we should burn false identification with the body and become free of the limitations of birth and death. This is not to be misconstrued as a morose reminder of death but as a powerful pointer towards the fact that time and tide wait for none.

The power of Bhasma :
Bhasma or Udi is also called “vibhooti”, because it gives spiritual power. The Sanskrit word, vibhooti means ‘glory’ , as it gives glory to one who applies it, protection from ill health and negative forces, and attracts the higher forces of nature. Another meaning of vibhooti is ‘healing power’, and it is widely used as a medicinal treatment in both ayurveda and Chinese and Tibetan medicine.

Vibhooti also means ‘dominion’, and is the subtle power lying behind creation, from which all things manifest. From vibhooti or bhasma , anything can be created by a tantric or aghora , because the potential of creation lies within it , and he ha penetrated the law and controlled the elements.

Maha yogi Shiva , father of tantra , is usually depicted naked in sadhana , his whole body coverd in bhasma. The first verse of the Shiva Panchakshara Stotram gives the following description; Nagendrahaarya trilochanaaya, bhasmaangaraaya maheshwaraaya . Nityaaya shuddhaaya digambarayya – ‘ Salutations to the mighty three eyed shiva, eternal and pure, wearing the king of snakes as his garland, naked and besmeared with sacred ash.’ Some other name given to Lord Shiva are Bhasmashrayaaya (abode of bhasma ) and Bhasmabhootaaya (covered with bhasma). Covering the body with ash is considered to be auspicious act for discovering one’s Shiva nature.

Vibhuthi should be taken with the right hand and applied on the forehead as three horizontal lines. The first line stands for removal of Ahankar (pride) the next stands for removal of Ignorance and the third stands for removal of bad karma (actions). The ash we apply indicates that we should burn false identification with the body and become free of the limitations of birth and death.


Sannyassins wear three lines of bhasma on the forehead. These three lines (tripundra) with a red dot of kumkum underneath , between the eyebrows,symbolize Shiva-Shakti, the unity of energy and matter that creates the entire seen and unseen universe. The lower line indicates tamoguna, the basic inertia and darkness, the middle line represents the rajas, activity and dynamism and the top line represents sattwa , balance and illumination. The red hot or tika indicates th power of Shakti through sadhana , which can take the sadhaka beyond the three gunas or qualitie to the state of turiya, the forth dimension of existence. This is the state of trigunnatita – beyond the gunas.

Bhasma has medicinal value and is used in many ayurvedic medicines. It absorbs excess moisture from the body and prevents colds and headaches. The Upanishads say that the famous Mrityunjaya mantra should be chanted whilst applying ash on the forehead.

Tryambakam yajaamahe
Sugandhim pushtivardhanam
Urvaa rukamiva bhandhanaan
Mrytyor muksheeyamaa amrutaat

“We worship the three-eyed Lord Shiva who nourishes and spread fragrance in our lives. May He free us from the shackles of sorrow, change and death – effortlessly, like the fall of a rip brinjal from its stem.”


Vaishnavites apply clay (preferably from holy rivers) or sandalwood paste. They apply the material in two vertical lines, which may be connected at the bottom, forming either a simple U shape or a form said to be like a tulasi leaf. Their Tilak is called the urdhva-pundra. Vaishnavites use clay for their Srichurnam. This is also called “thirumann” ( mann is the tamil word for clay). This is known as Srichurnam and wearing this is as an important part of the daily rites of a Sri Vaishnavite. The Tilak is applied to twelve parts of the body, reciting the twelve names of the Lord. Vedas say, by wearing this mark, he becomes fortunate, gets released of all the worldly bondages and attains liberation.

In Sri Vaishnava sampradaya the tilak is made out of the white mud found in anthills. The scriptures tell us that the mud from the base of a Tulasi plant and the white mud from within the anthill are both pure and best for making tilak. The Sri Vaishnavas will draw two lines representing the feet of Sri Narayana, and in the middle they will put a red line to represent Lakshmi Devi. Because the Sri Vaishnava sampradaya begins with Sri Lakshmi Devi, and they approach Narayana only through Lakshmi, their tilak reflects this process of surrender. Using mud also makes us reflect that we come from clay and go back to clay.

“In the Padma Purana there is a statement describing how a Vaisnava should decorate his body with tilaka and beads: “Persons who put tulasi beads on the neck, who mark twelve places of their bodies as Visnu temples with Visnu’s symbolic representations [the four items held in the four hands of Lord Visnu–conch, mace, disc and lotus], and who have visnu-tilaka on their foreheads, are to be understood as the devotees of Lord Visnu in this world. Their presence makes the world purified, and anywhere they remain, they make that place as good as Vaikuntha.”

A similar statement is in the Skanda Purana, which says, “Persons who are decorated with tilaka or gopi-candana [a kind of clay resembling fuller’s earth which is produced in certain quarters of Vrndavana], and who mark their bodies all over with the holy names of the Lord, and on whose necks and breasts there are tulasi beads, are never approached by the Yamadutas.”

Different types of tilaka markings denote the different sects of Vaisnavism, namely the impersonalists and the personalists. Gaudiya Vaisnava tilaka appears as two straight and perpendicular vertical lines on the forehead that meet between the eyes. Tilaka marks are ornamented in various ways. Sometimes white or yellow clay is used for marking the outer lines, and turmeric or red sricurna powder mark the central line. Curved tilaka is not to be worn Gaudiya Vaisnavas. Gaudiya Vaisnava tilaka is also known as udra pundra, or Visnu temple, which distinguishes the personalist Vaisnavas from the mayavadis, who use the three parallel lines, tripundra.

Members of the Kumara Sampradaya place on the forehead two vertical lines of white clay (gopichandana) with a central black spot. For members of the Laksmi Sampradaya, the representation of Namam on the Vaisnava’s forehead is known as Thirumann, which means the sacred earth (dust). Namam consists of three vertical lines joined at the base, the two outer white lines signifying the worship of Brahama and Vishnu and the red centerline signifying the worship Mahalakshi. The Saivite tilaka has three pundra, or lines, on the forehead.

The fingers used for applying tilak are as follows:

At the base of the little finger is Mercury, at the base of the ring-finger is Sun, at the base of the middle finger is Saturn, at the base of the index finger is Jupiter and at the base of the thumb is Venus. Tilak applied with the ring finger and the thumb is beneficial. The Sun represents firmness, brilliance, honour, respect and faith. These are the blessings achieved by applying tilak with the ring finger. Venus is a life and health giving force, the creator of life, the bestower of gentility and politeness. This is achieved by applying tilak with the thumb.

Women should use the ring finger for applying bindi, which should be made of unbroken rice grains. Men should also use unbroken rice grains (akshat) mixed in red chandan and apply the tilak with the thumb. The unbroken rice grains symbolise steadfastness and firmness of the brain and are also a symbol of peace.

The holy scriptures of Hindu advocate the importance to Tilak on a forehead in the below line:

The scriptures say: “A forehead without a Tilak, a woman without a husband, a Mantra the meaning of which is not known while doing Japa (recitation), the head that does not bend before holy personages, a heart without mercy, a house without a well, a village without a temple, a country without a river, a society without a leader, wealth that is not given away in charity, a preceptor without a disciple, a country without justice, a king without an able minister, a woman not obedient to her husband, a well without water, a flower without smell, a soul devoid of holiness, a field without rains, an intellect without clearness, a disciple who does not consider his preceptor as a form of God, a body devoid of health, a custom (Achar) without purity, austerity devoid of fellow-feeling, speech in which truth is not the basis, a country without good people, work without wages, Sannyasa without renunciation, legs that have not performed pilgrimages, determination unaided by Viveka or discrimination, a knife which is blunt, a cow that does not give milk, a spear without a point- all these are worthy of condemnation. They exist for name´s sake only.”

According to the Brahmanda Purana, the colours and manner of application of the tilak are significant: “A black Tilak will derive peace; a red Tilak will bring obedience and control; a yellow one will bring wealth; one which is white will deliver devotion to Vishnu; a Tilak of correct size, marked using one’s fingers will offer the god’s support and blessing; a Tilak in the centre of the forehead will bring youth and long life; the Chandlo made using the third finger (Anamika) will deliver joy; and a bounded Tilak will ultimately bring salvation”.