Nava Durga:The Nine Forms Of Goddess Durga

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The Nine Forms of Goddess Durgā and Navratri

Navadurga (Devanagari: नवदुर्गा), which literally means  the nine forms of Goddess Durga, constitute, according to vedic scriptures, the manifestation of Durgā in Her nine different aspects. These nine forms of manifestation are Śhailaputrī, Brahmachāriṇī, Chandrakaṇṭā, Kuṣhmāṇḍā, Skandamātā, Kātyāyanī, Kālarātrī, Mahāgaurī and Siddhidātrī – together worshipped during the Navrātri Vrata (Nine Divine Nights). Each goddess has a different form and a special significance. Nava Durgā, if worshipped with religious fervour during Navaratri, it is believed, to bestow spiritual fulfillment. Nava also means ‘nine’ – it denotes the number to which sages attach special significance. Hence, we have Nava-rātri (9 nights), Nava-patrika (9 leaves / herbs / plants), Nava-graha (9 planets), and Nava-Durgā (9 forms of Durga).


Navarātri –   नवरात्रि  – is a great, nine day, festival in India, in which goddess Durgā is worshiped in her nine different manifestations. The word Navarātri literally means nine nights in Sanskrit, nava meaning nine and rātri meaning nights. During these nine nights and ten days of devotion, nine different forms of Durgā are worshiped. The 10th day is commonly referred to as Vijaya-dashami or Dussehra.

These nine forms of Durga are worshipped during the Navaratri.

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Devi Mahatyam Devi Kavacham

The following nine names have been told by the Great Soul Brahma-deva Himself. Durgā is known by these names:
॥ नव-दुर्गा स्तोत्र ॥
॥ nava-durgā stotra ॥

ब्रह्मोवाच ।
brahmovāca ।
Lord Brahma said:

प्रथमं शैलपुत्रीति द्वितीयं ब्रह्मचारिणी ।
तृतीयं चन्द्रघण्टेति कूष्माण्डेति चतुर्थकम् ॥ ३ ॥

prathamaṁ śailaputrīti dvitīyaṁ brahmacāriṇī ।
tr̥tīyaṁ candraghaṇṭeti  kūṣmāṇḍeti caturthakam ॥ 3॥

Lord Brahma said: I have with extreme happiness sung the fame of the nine mothers, Śailaputrī (Daughter of the Himālayas), Brahmachāriṇī (One who observes the state of celibacy doing study and penance), Chandraghaṇṭā (One who bears the crescent moon in her necklace), Kūṣmāṇḍa (the mother of the universe), Skanda-Mātā (The mother of Skanda, Kārttikeya), Kātyāyanī (The daughter of sage Kātyāyana), Kālarātrī (black as night, destroyer of Kālī), Mahāgaurī (the wife of Lord Shiva, doing great penance) and Siddhidātrī (Provider of Siddhis, giver of mystic powers). The great God has told these in the Vedas.
He who remembers these nine mothers will not suffer even if he is burnt in fire, even if he has gone to war, even if he is very sad, even if he is terribly afraid of war. Anyone who remembers those names with devotion is also are free of these fears and sorrows.

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Lord Brahma said: I have with extreme happiness sung the fame of the nine mothers, Śailaputrī (Daughter of the Himālayas), Brahmachāriṇī (One who observes the state of celibacy doing study and penance), Chandraghaṇṭā (One who bears the crescent moon in her necklace), Kūṣmāṇḍa (the mother of the universe), Skanda-Mātā (The mother of Skanda, Kārttikeya), Kātyāyanī (The daughter of sage Kātyāyana), Kālarātrī (black as night, destroyer of Kālī), Mahāgaurī (the wife of Lord Shiva, doing great penance) and Siddhidātrī (Provider of Siddhis, giver of mystic powers). The great God has told these in the Vedas.

He who remembers these nine mothers will not suffer even if he is burnt in fire, even if he has gone to war, even if he is very sad, even if he is terribly afraid of war. Anyone who remembers those names with devotion is also are free of these fears and sorrows.

Navadurga: The Nine Forms Of Goddess Durga

Nine Goddesses of Navratri are collectively known as Navadurga and are mentioned in the Devi Mahatmya and Durga Saptashati. The Nine Goddesses worshipped on each of the nine days of Navaratri are incarnations of Goddess Shakti. All the nine names of the Goddess are also narrated in ‘Devi Kavacha’ of the ‘Chandipatha’ scripture.

With her golden body blazing with the splendour of a thousand suns, seated on her lion vehicle, Durga is one of the most spectacular of all personifications of Cosmic energy. Devi, in her ‘saumya’ or benevolent form, looks serene and powerful. In her numerous hands she holds a disc, mace, a sword, lotus, bow and an arrow, a trident and a conch shell. Her many weapons underscore the idea that the goddess incorporates the power of all the deities. Dressed in a green blouse and a red saree, she looks a perfect picture of kindness. Adorned in jewellery and an elaborate crown, she is beautiful. The crown and jewellery studded with precious stones points to her supreme status amongs the vedic gods and goddesses.

The background is mountainous, which is well thought of since the word ‘Durga’, itself means insurmountable, and this is why too most of the Devi’s temples are built atop hills.

Durga (the goddess of power) is seated on a lion in a fearless pose (Abhay Mudra) signifying assurance of freedom from fear. Lion represents power, will and determination. She can be seen holding her weapons (a long Trishula/trident with upper hand of right side and lower hand of left side, a Chakra, a conch shell, a Mace, a Talwar/longsword, a lotus and a bow) with her hands. She uses her weapons to destroy evil and to produce an environment conducive to growth of righteousness.


Navadurgā – नवदुर्गा

The nine forms of Goddess Durgā:

Navadurga (Devanagari: नवदुर्गा), which literally means  the nine forms of Goddess Durga, constitute, according to vedic scriptures, the manifestation of Durgā in Her nine different aspects. These nine forms of manifestation are Śhailaputrī, Brahmachāriṇī, Chandrakaṇṭā, Kuṣhmāṇḍā, Skandamātā, Kātyāyanī, Kālarātrī, Mahāgaurī and Siddhidātrī – together worshipped during the Navrātri Vrata (Nine Divine Nights). Each goddess has a different form and a special significance. Nava Durgā, if worshipped with religious fervour during Navaratri, it is believed, to bestow spiritual fulfilment.

Nava also means ‘nine’ – it denotes the number to which sages attach special significance. Hence, we have Nava-rātri (9 nights), Nava-patrika (9 leaves / herbs / plants), Nava-graha (9 planets), and Nava-Durgā (9 forms of Durga).

According to vedic scriptures, Goddess Durgā is a symbol of power. She is worshipped in nine different forms and is therefore termed Nava-durgā. Each of the nine manifestation of Durgā is worshipped with full devotion during Navarātri.

1.) Śailaputrī (Daughter of the Himālayas)
2.) Brahmachāriṇī (One who observes the state of celibacy doing penance)
3.) Chandraghaṇṭā ( One who bears the moon in her necklace )
4.) Kūṣmāṇḍa (the creator of the universe)
5.) Skanda-Mātā (The mother of Skanda, Kārttikeya, born out of her powers)
6.) Kātyāyanī (The daughter of sage Kātyāyana, who incarnated to help the Devas)
7.) Kālarātrī (black as night, destroyer of Kālī)
8.) Mahāgaurī (the wife of Lord Shiva, doing great penance)
9.) Siddhidātrī (Provider of Siddhis, giver of mystic powers)

The following nine names have been told (Devi Mahatyam Devi Kavacham) by the Great Soul Brahma-deva Himself. Durgā is known by these names:

॥ नव-दुर्गा स्तोत्र ॥
॥ nava-durgā stotra ॥

ब्रह्मोवाच ।
brahmovāca ।
Lord Brahma said:

प्रथमं शैलपुत्रीति द्वितीयं ब्रह्मचारिणी ।
तृतीयं चन्द्रघण्टेति कूष्माण्डेति चतुर्थकम् ॥ ३ ॥

prathamaṁ śailaputrīti dvitīyaṁ brahmacāriṇī ।
tr̥tīyaṁ candraghaṇṭeti  kūṣmāṇḍeti caturthakam ॥ 3॥

“First is the Goddess of Inspiration, and second the Goddess of Sacred Study; third is the Goddess of the Delight of Practice, the Goddess of Purifying Austerity is fourth.”

पञ्चमं स्कन्दमातेति षष्ठं कात्यायनी तथा ।
सप्तमं कालरात्रिश्च महागौरीति चाष्टमम् ॥ ४ ॥

pañcamaṁ skandamāteti ṣaṣṭhaṁ kātyāyanī tathā ।
saptamaṁ kālarātriśca mahāgaurīti cāṣṭamam ॥ 4॥

“Fifth is the Goddess who Nurtures Divinity, sixth is the One Who is Ever Pure; seventh is the Goddess of the Dark Night of Overcoming Egotism, the Goddess of the Great Radiant Light is eighth.”

नवमं सिद्धिदात्री च नवदुर्गाः प्रकीर्तिताः ।
उक्तान्येतानि नामानि ब्रह्मणैव महात्मना ॥ ५ ॥

navamaṁ siddhidātrī ca navadurgāḥ prakīrtitāḥ ।
uktānyetāni nāmāni brahmaṇaiva mahātmanā ॥ 5॥

“Ninth is the Goddess who Grants Perfection, the nine Durgas, Relievers of Difficulties, have been enumerated, and these names have been revealed by the great soul of the Supreme himself.”

Lord Brahma said: I have with extreme happiness sung the fame of the nine mothers, Śailaputrī (Daughter of the Himālayas), Brahmachāriṇī (One who observes the state of celibacy doing study and penance), Chandraghaṇṭā (One who bears the crescent moon in her necklace), Kūṣmāṇḍa (the mother of the universe), Skanda-Mātā (The mother of Skanda, Kārttikeya), Kātyāyanī (The daughter of sage Kātyāyana), Kālarātrī (black as night, destroyer of Kālī), Mahāgaurī (the wife of Lord Shiva, doing great penance) and Siddhidātrī (Provider of Siddhis, giver of mystic powers). The great God has told these in the Vedas.

He who remembers these nine mothers will not suffer even if he is burnt in fire, even if he has gone to war, even if he is very sad, even if he is terribly afraid of war. Anyone who remembers those names with devotion is also are free of these fears and sorrows.

Navarātri
–   नवरात्रि – is a great, nine day, festival in India, in which goddess Durgā is worshiped in her nine different manifestations.

The word Navarātri literally means nine nights in Sanskrit, nava meaning nine and rātri meaning nights. During these nine nights and ten days of devotion, nine different forms of Durgā are worshiped. The 10th day is commonly referred to as Vijaya-dashami or Dussehra.

These nine forms of Durga are worshipped during the Navaratri.


Navadurgā – नवदुर्गा

The nine forms of Goddess Durgā:

Shailaputri - Durga
Brahmacharini - Durga
Charndraghanta -Durga
Kushmanda - Durga
शैलपुत्री
1. Śailaputrī
ब्रह्मचारिणी
2. Brahmachāriṇī
चन्द्रघण्टा
3. Chandraghaṇṭā
कूष्माण्डा
4. Kūṣmāṇḍa
Skandamata Nava Durga
Katyayani Nava Durga
Kalaratri Nava Durga
Mahagauri Nava Durga
स्कन्दमाता
5. Skanda-Mātā
कात्यायनी
6. Kātyāyanī
कालरात्रि
7. Kālarātrī
महागौरी
8. Mahāgaurī
Siddhidatri Nava Durga
Navadurga     Nava Durga
सिद्धिदात्री
9. Siddhidātrī
– Navadurgā – नवदुर्गा –The nine differnt forms of Goddess Durgā –

Devī-Māhātmyam / Kavacham

Prayer to Yogamāyā Devi (Durga-devi)

Yogamāyā - Durga-devi    Yogamāyā - Durga-devi 


– Kalyāṇa Kalpataru 38 –
Desire Tree of Auspiciousness

Ucchvasa: Prarthana Dainyamayi Song 5
Prayer to Yogamāyā Devi

Text 1
āmāra samāna hīna nāhi e soṁsāre
asthira ha’yechi poḍi’ bhaba pārābāre
 

In this world no one is fallen like me. Drowning in the ocean of birth and death, I am very anxious.

1) The likes of such a lowly soul as me is not to be found anywhere else in this world. Thus I have become most agitated due to falling into this vast ocean of material existence.

Text 2
kuladebī jogamāyā more kṛpā kori’
ābaraṇa sambaribe kabe biśwodar
ī

O Goddess Yogamāyā, O the mother of the worlds, when will you be merciful to me and remove this veil of illusions?

2) Oh Yogamaya! When will you show mercy to me by lifting up the curtain of illusion with which you shroud the universe in your external form of Mahamaya? You are known as Kuladevi, the traditional worshipable Goddess of all the Vaisnavas dynasties.

Text 3
śunechi āgame bede mahimā tomāra
śrī-kṛṣṇa-bimukhe bāndhi karāo soṁsāra

In the Vedas and Agamas I have heard your glories. The souls who have turned away from Lord Kṛṣṇa you imprison in the world of birth and death.

3) I have heard of your glories and activities from the Vedic literatures, You take all those souls who are averse to Krsna and bind them within the material world.

Text 4
śrī-kṛṣṇa-sāmmukhya jā’ra bhāgya-krame hoya
tā’re mukti diyā koro’ aśoka abhoya

To the fortunate souls who try to turn toward Lord Kṛṣṇa you give liberation. You free them from fear and grief.

4) To that person whose good fortune gradually dawns and allow him to again become favorably disposed to Krsna, you award him with liberation and make him free from all grief and fear.

Text 5
e dāse janani kori’ akaitaba doyā
bṛndābane deha’ sthāna tumi jogamāyā

O mother, please be merciful to this servant. Please don’t cheat him. O Yogamāyā, please give him a place in Vṛndāvana.

5) Oh my dear Mother! Showing your causeless mercy to your servant give me a place in Vrndavana, for you are Yogamaya Herself. (The internal energy of yoga, or union.)

Text 6
tomāke laṅghiyā kothā jībe kṛṣṇa pāya
kṛṣṇa-rasa prakaṭilo tomāra kṛpāya

How can a person who neglects you find Lord Kṛṣṇa? It is by your mercy that the nectar of Lord Kṛṣṇa is openly visible.

6) Without complying with you, no soul at any time can get Krsna, for the manifestation of Krsna’s pastimes is all enacted only by your mercy.

Text 7
tumi kṛṣṇa-sahacarī jagata-jananī
tumi dekhāile more kṛṣṇa-cintāmaṇi

You are Lord Kṛṣṇa’s companion. You are the mother of the worlds. You showed me the cintāmaṇi jewel that is Lord Kṛṣṇa.

7) You are the devoted follower of Lord Krsna, and you are the mother of the universe. You have shown to me the transcendental touchstone of Krsna consciousness.

Text 8
niṣkapaṭa ho’ye mātā cāo mora pāne
baiṣṇaba biśwāsa bṛddhi ha’ka prati-khaṇe

O mother, I sincerely desire that my faith in the Vaiṣṇavas will grow moment after moment.

8) My dear Mother, I sincerely wish that you will let my faith in the Vaisnavas increase at every moment.

Text 9
baiṣṇaba-caraṇa binā bhaba-parābāra
bhakatibinoda nāre hoibāre pāra

Without taking shelter of the Vaiṣṇavas’ feet, Bhaktivinoda has no power to cross to the farther shore of the ocean of birth and death.

9) Without the lotus feet of the devotees of the Lord, Bhaktivinoda is not able to cross to the other side of this ocean of material existence.


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