In Some parts of the world, This procedure has also been associated with religious rituals and “to ward off evil spirits”. However, in the case of the skull that was found in Harappa, The Trepanation ( The process of cutting a hole in the skull) was intended as therapeutic as there is a clear indication of cranial trauma in the form of a visible linear depression, probably resulting from a severe blow, says the study. There is evidence too of healing indicating that the victim survived for a considerable time after the operation. Scholars have recorded striking similarities in trepanation techniques across the continents, and therefore considered it as important evidence for prehistoric movements of people and for transfer of surgical skills from one society to another.
There is another reference to Brain surgery in 11th century in a text Bhoja Prabandham, describing life of Raja Bhoja. Raja Bhoja was a king and polymath of medieval India, who ruled the kingdom of Malwa in central India from the early 11th century to 1055 CE. Also known as Raja Bhoj of Dhar, he belonged to the Paramara dynasty.
A study published in the latest edition of the Indian journal, Current Science reveals that brain surgical practice was prevalent even 4,300 years ago — in the Indus Valley during the Harappa Culture! The finding is based on the surgical procedure, known as trepanation, discovered in one Harappan male skull kept in the Palaeoanthropology Repository of Kolkata-based Anthropological Survey of India (ASI). The skull was discovered in 1930s during excavations in Harappa.
“The first unequivocal case of ancient brain surgical practice, known as trepanation, was observed 4,300 years ago in a Bronze Age Harappan skull,” says A R Sankhyan, a palaeoanthropologist from ASI. “A clear rim of 3 mm width at the internal border of the hole is the evidence of osteogenesis or healing, indicating that the victim survived for a considerable time after the operation.”