Curses and boons are an integral part of Indian mythological stories. When it comes to curses, Karna of Mahabharat comes to our mind. But do you know that Lord Rama and Lord Krishna were also cursed?
Curse / Shaap aka Shraap / श्राप
Curses are the antonyms of boons. They are the most undesirable things or situations that one is bound to suffer mostly because of a mistake he made or a crime that he committed. Eg., Karna is cursed to die in the battlefield unarmed because he killed an innocent cow by mistake. Curses are highly technical too, can be modified and sometimes intelligent people use them to their advantage. Eg., Arjuna was cursed by Urvashi to become a eunuch for life but Indra’s intervention reduced the duration of that curse to ‘one’ year. Arjuna used this curse during the 13th year of his exile when he was required to conceal his identity.
Here are list of famous curse in Hindu Mythology which shaped :
1. Curse on King Dashrath by Shravan PARENT’s
One day, King Dasaratha went for hunting into the forest and accidentally killed Sharvan. Parents of Shravan Kumar cursed Dashrath to suffer for his son. They cursed King Dasaratha to suffer with similar putrasoka in the future. It is because of this curse that many years later King Dasaratha suffered the pain of separation from his beloved son Lord Rama. Which came true due to boons given to Kaikeyi.
2. Curse on Lord Rama
Perhaps the most amazing unknown fact from The Ramayana. Tara (wife of Vali) cursed Rama so that he will soon lose Sita after he regains her. She also declared that Sita will return to the earth. This happened after Rama killed Bali when he was having a duel with Sugriva. Tara additionally cursed Rama that in his next birth, he will be killed by Vali. (Shri Krishna and the hunter).
3. The Curse On Jaya and Vijaya which led four VISHNU Avatar
Most defining curse in Hindu mythology
According to the Bhagavata Purana, Jaya and Vijaya, gatekeepers at Vaikuntha, abode of Vishnu, one day saw four Kumaras – Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanatkumara – had come to meet Vishnu. Thinking of them to be mere children, not manasaputras of Brahma as they actually were, Jaya and Vijaya stopped them at the door. Enraged, the Kumaras cursed the two that they would have to leave Vaikunta and be born as mere mortals on earth. Jaya and Vijaya appealed to Vishnu but he said the curse of the Kumaras could not be reversed. Instead, he gave Jaya and Vijaya two options: either take seven births on earth as a devotee of Vishnu, or take three births on earth as his enemy. Unable to be away from Vishnu for seven births, Jaya and Vijaya chose to be born as his enemy. Indeed, they were born as Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha; Ravana and Kumbhakarna; and Dantavakra and Shishupala.
This can be regarded as the most defining curse in Hindu mythology, which resulted in birth of Ravana, Kumbhkarna, Hiranyakashyap and Hiranyaksha. Lord Vishnu took four avatars to relieve them of their curse.
4. Ahalya CURSE
Wife of sage Gautama.When she goes to take water from the river,Indra sees her and immediately gets attracted to her beauty.A princess earlier,becomes a rishi’s wife.
She rejects his advances as she was a chaste woman.
When Indra disguises as the Rishi and seduces her.Unable to recognise the difference between her husband,she gets involved.
Knowing this through his gyana drishti,sage Gautama curses her and she becomes a rock and her curse is liberated by Lord Rama. This story is available in Balkand of ramayana.
5. Sage Gautam’s curse to Indra (Ahalya‘s Husband Curse)
Enraged, the rishi curses Indra that since he is so obsessed with a woman’s body, he can have his body decorated with a 1000 vaginas. However, the devas come to beg the sage to lift this curse, since Indra is their chief. The rishi refuses to lift the curse, but agrees that Indra can have a thousand eyes instead. Indra was cursed with one thousand female genitals (Sahasrayoni). Later she reverted this curse into a boon and Indra got thousand eyes. Indra is also known as Sahasraaksha.
6. Curse of Narada on Vishnu : Birth Of Hanuman
Narada, infatuated with a princess, went to his lord Vishnu, to make him look like Vishnu, so that the princess would garland him at swayamvara (husband-choosing ceremony). He asked for hari mukh (Hari is another name of Vishnu, and mukh means face). Vishnu instead bestowed him with the face of a vanara. Unaware of this, Narada went to the princess, who burst into laughter at the sight of his ape-like face before all the king’s court.
Narada, unable to bear the humiliation, cursed Vishnu, that Vishnu would one day be dependent upon a vanara. Vishnu replied that what he had done was for Narada’s own good, as he would have undermined his own powers if he were to enter matrimony. Vishnu also noted that Hari has the dual Sanskrit meaning of vanara. Upon hearing this, Narada repented for cursing his idol. But Vishnu told him not repent as the curse would act as a boon, for it would lead to the birth of Hanuman, an avatar of Shiva, without whose help Rama (Vishnu’s avatar) could not kill Ravana. Narada cursed Lord Vishnu to become dependent on Vanara. This was fulfilled when Hanuman helped Lord Rama in the Ramayana.
7. Curse on Anjana – mother of Hanuman
She was an apsara but took birth as a vanar. Once she threw some fruits on a meditating vanar, who was a sage doing penance. The sage cursed her to born become a vanar the moment she fells in love. She was absolved of this curse later through Brahma’s boon.
8. Curse on Hanuman
Lord Hanuman had earned the reputation of being notorious during his childhood. He used to pester meditating hermits, who had taken refuge in the kingdom of his father, King Kesari. During one such incident, an annoyed sage had hexed Hanuman. Due to the spell Hanuman was unable to remember the powers vested in him by the deities unless someone reminded him of it. When Sita was kidnapped by Ravana, Jambavantha had to remind Hanuman of his powers, so that he could pursue the search for Sita.
9. Ravana, A Cursed Man
For those of you who have wondered why Ravana was fearful of Sita, it was because of a curse. He was cursed by his daughter-in-law Rambha for raping her that if he ever tried to touch a woman without her consent, all his ten heads would explode instantly. Poor guy, don’t you think?
10. Pandu’s Curse
Pandu, who was an excellent archer, was once hunting in a forest. He disturbs Rishi Kindama and his wife in their intimate moment by imagining them to be deer and shoots them down with his arrows. Pandu rushes to the spot to survey his kill when he realizes his folly. The sage, who is breathing his last, curses Pandu, saying, that if he ever approaches a woman with the thought of sex, he shall die then and there”. The Mahabharat tells us this is actually how Pandu meets his end, when he approaches his second wife.
11. Gandhari to Shri Krishna
Another famous curse from the Mahabharata is the curse cast upon Krishna. After the battle of Kurukshetra, when Krishna goes to console a distraught Gandhari, mother of the 100 Kauravas, she flinches in pain. She curses Krishna that the way in which he schemed to kill her sons and end her bloodline, his bloodline too will never last. Krishna not only died an untimely death, his family members too killed each other in infighting. Accordingly, her curse came true after 36 years of Mahabharata war.
12. Urvashi’s curse to Arjuna
Krishna sent Arjuna to Indra for training in warfare. In devlok, the famous apsara Urvashi fell in love with Arjuna. However, he refused her advances. This apsara was aware that Arjuna would have to face agyatwas (lead an anonymous life for a year), so faking false anger at being rejected, she cursed him to become a eunuch for a year. In fact, that way, she helped him maintain his anonymity.
13. Yudhisthira to womankind
14. Curse of Vasishtha on Vasus
Vasishtha cursed vasus to be born on earth as mortals since they have abducted his cow, Nandini. This curse is also related with birth of Bhishma.
15. Parshuram to Karna
As Parshurama only taught to Brahmins, Karna appeared before him as a Brahmin. Parashurama accepted him and trained him to such a point that he declared Karna to be equal to himself in the art of warfare and archery. On a day towards the end of his training Karna happened to offer Parashurama his lap so his guru could rest his head and nap.
But while Parashurama was asleep, a bee stung Karna’s thigh and despite the pain, Karna did not move, so as not to disturb his guru’s sleep. With blood oozing from his wound, Parashurama woke up at once deduced that Karna was not a Brahmin. Parashurama, who had sworn to teach Brahmins only, laid curse upon Karna that he would forget all the knowledge required to wield the divine weapon , at the moment of his greatest need. Upon Karna’s pleading, Parshurama gave him the celestial weapon called Bhargavastra, along with his personal bow called Vijaya, for being such a diligent student.
This is quite famous incident of a teacher and the student. Parshuram cursed Karna that he would forget the mantra when he would need most.
16 Bhoomi devi to Karna
Karna is said to have encountered a girl who was crying out of fear of her step mother since her ghee had fallen to the ground. Being generous enough Karna told her that he would give her new ghee. But, the child insisted that she wanted only the ghee that was mixed with the soil and refused to take the new ghee. Taking pity on the girl, Karna took the soil mixed with ghee in his fist and squeezed it with all his might to extract the ghee and pour it back into the pot. However, Bhoomi Devi (Mother Earth) was furious at him for hurting her for the sake of a mere child. So, the Earth goddess cursed him that in a very crucial battle of his life, she would trap his chariot wheel in the same way that he held the fistful of soil, thereby making him vulnerable to his enemy.
17 Brahmin curse to Karna
Karna was also cursed by a Brahmin for killing his cow while practising his skills with bow and arrows. The Brahmin got angry and cursed him that he would become helpless in the same way the innocent cow had become, by his chariot wheels getting stuck in the ground.
To die as a helpless as he has killed a cow. Karna had his more than share of curses.
18 Shri Krishna to Ashwaththama
Krishna demanded that Ashwathama remove his protective jewel from his head. Krishna forced him to do so. Then he cursed Ashwathama with terrible leprosy that would haunt him for 3000 years. Krishna further stated that Ashwathama would not be helped by anyone or provided food or shelter. His body was covered in horrible wounds which wouldn’t heal. Blood and pus came out of his wounds constantly. It is believed that Ashwathama still roams the earth today as he is immortal.
19. The curse of sages (Vishwamitra, Durvasa, Vashista, and Narada) to Samba
Samba, Lord Krishna’s son and his friends once have joked with sages. They cursed him to give birth to a iron lump of mass which will bring the destruction of the entire Yadava race.
20. Shri Krishna’s curse to Samba
Shri Krishna curse to Samba (his own son) to be affected by leprosy.
21. The curse on King Yayati by Shukracharya
Sage & Guru Shukracarya cursed King yayati to go as a Old man as Yayati secretly wedded Sharmishtha. (She was Devayani’s sister.) He was allowed to exchange his state from someone who was willing to do. Yayati’s all sons refused, but Puru agreed and he later became his successor.
22 Shiva’s curse to Brahma
Once Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma were confronted with a massive Shivlinga. They had a wager that they will each find one end of the shivalinga. Vishnu soon gave up the quest out of reverence for Lord Shiva. But Brahma, manipulated Shiva’s favourite flower Ketki (screwvine) to falsely bear witness to the fact that he had seen the end of the Shivalinga. Annoyed at this falsity, Shiva cursed Brahma that no one shall ever worship him. Due this famous curse in Hindu mythology, there are only two temples of Brahma in India and despite being the creator of the Universe, there are no festivals to honour him.
23. Saraswati’s curse to Brahma
Brahma not being worshipped is associated with Saraswati’s curse too. He was cursed after being irritated with undue advances from Brahma.
24. Brahma’s curse to Shiva
Originally Brahma has five heads. Once Parvati mistook him for Shiva and when she realized she told this to Shiva. Shiva removed Brahma’s fifth head as Kal Bhairav. Brahma cursed Shiva that the fifth head will be attached to Shiva and will cause him hunger. The fifth head must be attached to his hand itself and hereafter Shiva must be affected having hunger, having no sleep. Parvati sought Vishnu’s advise and got rid of the fifth head ‘Kabala’.
25 Ganesha’s curse to Moon
Ganesha cursed moon for him being impolite.
26 Narada’s curse to sons of Kuber
Narada cursed Kuber’s sons to become trees. They were liberated by Shri Krishna. Nalakuvara and Maṇigriva were Kubera’s sons. Once they were taking bath in water with their wives naked. Sage Narada came that way. The ladies took their garments after seeing the sage. But the sons of Kubera ignored him. Narada gave a lecture on the false prestige and madness after drinking liquor by the rich and influenced. Then Narada cursed them to become twin trees to be released later by Lord Krishna.
27 Curse of Radha to Sridhama
To be born as in a low family. Sridhama also cursed Radha that she will be separated from Krishna for 100 years.
28 Curse on Shantanu and Ganga by Brahma
Shantanu and Ganga were celestial beings who had also been cursed to be born on earth as human beings. Shantanu was King Mahabhishak and he and Ganga were cursed by Brahma for their indecencies in their past lives.
29 Saraswati’s curse to Laxmi
To be born as a tree. Saraswati as a result of Ganga’s curse would become the wife of Brahma. Ganga due to Saraswati’s curse would become a holy River to demolish the sins of those who take baths on her waters.
30 Curse of Kabandha
Rama meets the rakshasa Kabandha and kills him, freeing him from a curse. The freed Kabandha advises Rama to seek the help of Sugriva to find Sita.
31 Vasishtha’s curse to Satyavrata
He is popularly known as Trishanku and cursed with a debilitating disease. He was cursed because he stole the cow of Sage Vasishtha and killed it. He then ate it later. But he took care of Sage Vishwamitra’s family, Vishwamitra wanted to send him to heaven.
33 Sage Durvasa’s Curse on Shakuntala
Durvasa Muni assumed a larger than life persona, thanks to his anger and the curses he heaped on the unsuspecting. According to Abhingyana ShakuntalamThe most famous of his curses was the one he inflicted on Shakuntala, because, lost in her daydreams about her lover King Dushyanth, she forgot to receive the muni with the respect due to a guest. The sage cursed her that because of her inhospitality, the person in her dreams would forget her. When a distraught Shakuntala pleaded with him, the sage reduced the intensity of the curse by suggesting that her lover would remember her once she showed him his ring. What follows in the intervening period is the legend of Shakuntala, such is the life-changing power of a mere curse.
34 Sita’s Curse To Gaya
The hero of Ramayana, Rama (avatar of Vishnu) went to perform his fathers last rites at Gaya with his brother Laxman and wife Sita. When the brothers were bathing in the river Phalguni, Dashrath’s (Rama’s father) spirit appeared and asked Sita for Pindam (the Hindu ritual of offering rice to the dead). As Sita had nothing else, she gave him an offering sand. There were 5 witnesses to this act; a cow, a Tulsi (holy basil) plant, Akshaya Vatam (foot print of Vishnu), a brahmin and the Phalguni river. When Rama came back, all the other witnesses except the Akshaya Vatam backed out. So a distraught Sita cursed the Phalguni river to dry up, banished the Tulsi plant from Gaya, cursed the brahmins of Gaya to be hungry for ever and dictated that the cow shall never be worshipped from the front.
35 Bhrigu Acharya’s Curse on Vishnu
The Matsya Purana tell a story about the perpetual wars between devas and asuras. The devas would always end up beating the asuras. Humiliated, Shukra Acharya, guru of the asuras, decided to approach Shiva to obtain the mritasanjeevani stotra, or mantra to make asuras invincible. He, meanwhile, asked the asuras to take refuge at the ashram of his father Bhrigu. The devas found the absence of Shukra Acharya a most opportune time to attack the asuras once again. However, Bhrigu himself being away, the asuras sought his wife’s help. Using her powers, she rendered Indra immobile. Indra, in turn, appealed to Lord Vishnu to get rid of her. Vishnu obliged by severing her head with his sudarshana chakra. When Sage Bhrigu saw what had happened to his wife, he cursed that Vishnu be born on earth several times and suffer the pains of worldly life. Hence, Vishnu took birth on Earth in the form of avatars
36 Valmiki’s Curse
Sage Valmiki is walking on the banks of river Tamasa, ponderign how to start writing the epic Ramayana, when he observes two cranes in love. Even as he is moved by the tranquility of the moment, a wild arrow from a hunter’s bow comes rushing through the air and strikes at the heart of the male bird. Even as the bird dies in agony, the female bird, filled with sorrow, dies of shock. Valmiki is taken back by this sudden turn of events. Consumed by passion and rage, Valmiki curses the hunter. But he surprised himself by delivering the curse in lyrical prose: मां निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समाः। यत्क्रौंचमिथुनादेकम् अवधीः काममोहितम्॥’ which means “May you live restless for eternity, for you killed an unsuspecting bird in love”… That was the genesis of the Hindu epic Ramayana.
37 Yagna and Curses
Once the rishis were conducting a yagna. The question arose as to who among the Holy Trinity was the most superior. Sage Bhrigu went to Brahma and deliberately insulted him, to test him. However, Brahma gor seriously annoyed and vowed to take revenge. Bhrigu, in turn, cursed him, saying no one in Kali Yuga would worship Brahma. Then he went o Shiva’s abode. However, Nandi bull stiopped tha sage from entering, saying the divine couple were in their private chambers. An enraged Brigu cursed them that Shiva and Parvati would be henceforth be worshipped in their sexual form (the linga). When the sage visited Vishnu’s abode, he was met with humility and courtesy. He then declared Vishnu to be the most superior in the Holy Trinity.
38 Lakshmi Curses Bhrigu
Now, in the above story, Vishnu was courteous to Sage Bhrigu even though he had tried to provoke Vishnu by kicking him. While Vishnu easily forgave him, his consort Lakshmi could not do so. She cursed that henceforth, she would desert all brahmins. Even today, it is believed that a brahmin cannot become rich. However, all is not lost. Lakshmi provided a papa vimochana or cure for sin by saying that she will not desert those brahmins who worship her husband sincerely.
39 Curse That Killed Mahishasura
Mahishasura had pleased Brahma by his worship. Brahma gave him two boons: He cannot be killed by any man, god or asura. And he can transform into any living form. So one day, Mahishasura took the form of a girl and entered the ashram of Sage Katyani when he was meditating. He went and drank the khir meant to be offered to the gods. When sage Katyani asked the girl why she did that, the girl turned into Mahishasura. Sage Katyani cursed him that since he had duped him in the form of a girl, he would also die at the hands of a girl. Mahishasura laughed it off, saying, “When no man, god or asura can kill me, what harm can a lady do?” However, all the Gods assimilated all their powers to give rise to Maa Durga in the ashrama of Sage Katyani, who, indeed, went on to kill Mahishasura, That’s why the sixth form of Navadurga is called Katyani (the daughter of Sage Katyani).
40 Tulsi Curses Lord Vishnu
After being instructed by goddess Parvati, Lord Vishnu had gone to Tulsi in the guise of her husband- Shankhachuda, so that the breach of Tulsi chastity could help lord Shiva to kill Shankhachuda, who derived his power from Tulsi’s chastity and virtuosity.
Initially Tulsi could not recognize lord Vishnu. She was extremely joyous at his arrival. But very soon she was able to realize the real identity of lord Vishnu, who had disguised himself as her husband. She became very angry and cursed lord Vishnu to become a stone. She was crying unconsolably. Lord Vishnu contemplated on Shiva as a result of which he appeared. Lord Shiva blessed Tulsi that she would become the beloved of Lord Vishnu.
Due to Tulsi’s curse, Lord Vishnu attained the form of Shaligram which is a stone and because of lord Shiva’s blessings. Tulsi leaves started being offered to the Shaligram, in the process of its worship.
41 AMBA curse
From Satyavati, King Shantanu had two sons named Chitrangada and Vichitriya. After death of Shantnu Chitrangada was throne, but he died in the war with Gandharwon. However strong Vichitriya was throne and began to look himself on the throne reason of state. Vichitrvirya was young so Kashiraj 3 young daughters to be forcibly taken away by Bhishma and he wanted to do with their marriage with Vichitriya because Bhishma wanted his father Shantanu to somehow increase the total.But later left the big princess Amba because she liked Shalvraj, but after going to Shalvra, he refused to accept Amba.
This painful situation lasted for amba. Amba considered that this pain was caused by Bhishma, and complained to Parshuramji regarding it. Prshuramji embattled to fight against injustice. Prshuramji told Bhishma, “You forcibly abducted Amba, so now that you would have marry her or otherwise get ready for war.”Bhishmaand Prshuramji had fiercely 21-day war. Finally sages told all the tales of woe and the vow of celibacy to Parshuram and their exposed position and Bhishma also welcomed him, only then did war was ceased by Prshuramji.Later Amba very commensally said the Bhishma, ‘You have ruined my life and now are refusing to marry me. I am a destitute woman and powerful. You abused your power. I can do you any harm, but I‘ll rise again and then as men will become a reason to end your bangs. “Amba later take birth as peacock and become the cause of death of Bhishma.
42 Shringi’s curse to Parikshit
Parikshit was a great king and considered to be the personification of goodness and nobody could match him in valour. He was very fond of hunting like his great-grandfather Pandu. Once he was on a hunting trip when he aimed at a deer but the deer, although hit managed to escape. Parikshit followed it deep into the forest but was unable to locate it.he was wandering in the woods alone looking for food he came across a Rishi in deep meditation and who had taken the vow of silence.
43 Curse given to Nal and Neel
Nal and Neel were very powerful monkeys and mischievous in their childhood days.They used to throw away objects in the water just for fun. when they threw away the a certain sage in the water, they were cursed that nothing will be drowned in the water if it will be thrown by them. When Ram reached at the shore of the ocean then Nal and Neel constructed the floating bridge for them to cross the ocean. Had they not been cursed it would be impossible for Ape army to cross the ocean and to rescue Sita.
44. Curse given to the moon
As per a Vedic myth, Daksha Prajapati had given 27 of his daughters in marriage to Chandra (the moon god). Chandra was known for his good looks and virility. But Chandra amongst all the wives preferred Rohini, which angered the other sisters, who complained to their father about this partiality.
Daksha Prajapati cursed Chandra with a degenerative disease, which led him to lose his lustre and thus Chandra started to wane. Chandra was worried and on the advice of Lord Brahma, prayed to Shiva, who allowed him to take refuge in his locks and gain his potency back.
Later, the curse was reduced to a temporary state, and from that day onwards, Chandra, the moon, waxes when it approaches Rohini and wanes when it moves away from her. On the full moon day, Chandra attains his full potency, and then onwards, it loses its potency to the new moon night, when he has no wife by his side and on the previous day, when he is just a crescent, he takes refuge on Shiva’s locks. The day Chandra, takes refuge on Shiva’s locks, Lord Shiva is known as Chandrashekhar!
45 Parvati’s curse to Vishnu
After Ravana and his brothers received boons from lord Brahma, Ravana planned on invading the kingdom of Amaravathi, the capital of the heavenly kingdom of Indra. Knowing Ravanas strength and capability Indra consults Narada for help. Narada tells Indra that Ravana is powerful because his family worships Lord Shiva and that the worship in turn gives them such tremendous power. Narada then suggests Indra that he disrupt Kaikesi’s (Ravan’s Mother) worship of a Linga which is made of sand. Indra disrupts the prayer by destroying the Linga. Knowing this Ravana then promises Kaikesi that he will perform penance and bring Lord Shiva’s Aatma Linga for her to worship.
Goddess Parvathi comes to know about Ravana’s penance and fears that Lord Shiva might leave Kailasa and go to earth forever. Narada then suggests Goddess Parvathi that she seek Lord Vishnu’s help in this matter. Lord Shiva impressed by Ravana’s penance grants him a wish. Lord Vishnu then uses his magic to trick Ravana into asking Goddess Parvathi’s hand from lord Shiva instead of the Aatma Linga. Shiva grants Ravana’s wish. Goddess Parvathi then curses Lord Vishnu that he will also be separated from his spouse the next time he is born as a human. This curse laid the path for Sita’s abduction and the other events of Ramayana.
Brief Description About Curse
Hinduism is a wonderful religion. Here even the Gods and saints have to obey the rules. It is very interesting to study the way curses and boons work in Hinduism. Equally interesting is how they are showered upon people and gods .Though we hear about the curses in other mythologies such as Greek and Roman there is a logical pattern in Hinduism. Here truthfulness is the basis for the curses and boons. Let us take the curses first. If a sage or god or a Deva/semi god curses someone, it can’t be taken back even by the person who spelt it. It is like a bullet from the rifle or an arrow from the bow. But every curse has an antidote or atonement. We can call it an escape route or exit strategy.
Following things are obvious in the episodes of cursing:
- Water is used to curse a person. Water has got magical powers or it is used as a medium to transfer those powers.
- A person curses another for the wrong doing. Arrogance and bad deeds invariably attract a curse
- When the person begs for pardon or mercy, the curser gives an antidote which is usually an escape route-but comes after a long time. Here is the beauty of Hinduism. No one can escape the Karma. If some one does something wrong that person must undergo punishment. But it is not an eternal condemnation. Any sinner can become a saint.
- Kings (Dasaratha,Ravana,Vali),Devas(Indra,Rambha),Gods(Brahma) and mortals (Ahalya,Sakunthala) are famous examples of victims.